Effect of Foot Reflexology on Anxiety Levels among Patients to Receive Cardiac İmplantable Electronic Devices: A Randomised Controlled Study





Anxiety, cardiac implantable electronic devices, reflexology, randomised control trial, Turkey


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of foot reflexology, a complementary and supportive method on anxiety in patients scheduled to receive cardiac implantable electronic devices. This randomised controlled study was conducted between April 2022 and October 2022 at the cardiology clinic of a university health research and application centre in Turkey. The study was conducted with 64 patients—32 in the experimental and 32 in the control group. Data were collected using a patient information form and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A significance level of p < 0.05 was accepted. The results showed that the mean scores of the State Anxiety Inventory were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group, and the mean scores of the Trait Anxiety Inventory were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (both p < 0.001). These findings indicate that the intervention in the experimental group led to a significant decrease in anxiety levels. This study demonstrated that foot reflexology significantly affected anxiety in patients planning for cardiac implantable electronic devices. The participants in the experimental group had significantly higher state anxiety levels than those in the control group after the intervention, but their trait anxiety levels were significantly lower than those in the control group after the reflexology application.


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How to Cite

Çuvadar, Ayşe, Berna Aksoy, Umut Yıldız, and Cihan Öztürk. 2023. “Effect of Foot Reflexology on Anxiety Levels Among Patients to Receive Cardiac İmplantable Electronic Devices: A Randomised Controlled Study”. Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery 25 (2):12 pages. https://doi.org/10.25159/2520-5293/13821.



Received 2023-06-05
Accepted 2023-08-04
Published 2023-09-08