Africanus: Journal of Development Studies <p>Published by the Department of Development Administration, University of South Africa.<br>Articles on development problems with special reference to the Third World and southern Africa as well as politics and policy concerning intergroup relations.</p> en-US (Sebeka Plaatjie) (Mohamed Zaheer Motala) Wed, 23 Jun 2021 12:41:34 +0000 OJS 60 Evaluation of Youth Empowerment Strategies in Rural Zimbabwe <p class="Abstract">This article evaluates strategies for youth empowerment in rural Zimbabwe. Policies and institutions that are mandated to implement such tasks in Zimbabwe are evaluated. The paper also explores the compatibility of the said policies within a rural context. Through in-depth and key informant interviews with youths, government ministries and non-governmental organisations in Mwenezi (corroborated by secondary data), the paper provides a clearer understanding of youth empowerment policies in rural Zimbabwe. The study notes several shortcomings within the policy framework, such as tokenistic consultation in formulating, designing and implementing policies. Shortage of funds and corruption among public officers often hamper implementation, while poor coordination between actor organisations has negatively impacted youth empowerment outcomes. The paper therefore proposes context-specific policies that meet the real rural challenges as experienced by the youth, and not those imagined by policy makers/enactors. In coming up with such programmes, the paper advocates for youth participation at every stage, while also ensuring that relevant institutions are empowered to enhance the welfare/emancipation of the youth. In contributing to the broader discussion on rural African youth empowerment, this paper advocates for the mainstreaming of youth policies that are suitable for rural contexts as a way of enhancing their socio-economic emancipation.</p> Promise Hlungwani Copyright (c) 2021 Unisa Press Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Unpacking Climate Change Adaptation Strategies: An Account of Smallholder Farmer Experiences in Chimanimani District, Zimbabwe <p>This article reports on a study that analysed a myriad of adaptation practices adopted by smallholder farmers in Chimanimani District, Zimbabwe. Using a predominantly qualitative design, some in-depth interviews were conducted with purposefully selected key respondents. Focus group discussions with 8 to 12 smallholder farmers per group were conducted in each of the district’s 22 wards. These were corroborated by the guided observation method. The data was analysed using thematic content analysis, where broad strands of responses were synthesised and condensed into narrow themes that made them easier to interpret. Accordingly, smallholder farmers opted for drought tolerant crop and animal species, indigenous seed preservation techniques, aquaculture and conservation farming. The off-farm practices included craftwork, bee-keeping, artesian mining and trade. The sustainable livelihoods framework (SLF) was used as an analytical lens to appraise the sustainability of smallholder farmers’ choices and practices. Therefore, as farmers switched from one practice to another, many of their adaptive options reflected short-term livelihood benefits with concealed medium- to long-term environmental detriments. Strangely, some malpractices have their roots in short-sighted government policy frameworks mainstreamed to alleviate grass roots poverty. A thorough evaluation of adaptive policies is recommended so as to strengthen the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers against the background of climate change.</p> Happwell Musarandega, Wisemen Chingombe, Rajendran Pillay Copyright (c) 2021 Unisa Press Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Collective Memory and Nation-Building in Africa <p>Based on documentary analysis, this article argues that lessons of violent conflicts are rarely appropriated positively for nation-building in the context of post-conflict African societies. The article further stresses that the reasons often projected as causes of ineffective nation-building, such as multiple ethnicity and neo-colonialism, are unjustifiably projected as causal factors. It argues that diverse ethnicity remains a dormant destructive force until operationalised for political gains through misappropriation and deployment of collective memories. In the African context, post-conflict societies adopt the mixed approach of selective amnesia which emphasises amnesty, reconciliation, rehabilitation and reintegration as necessary for nation-building. Experience, however, suggests that the operationalisation of this approach is always marred by inconsistencies and repression. Consequently, repressive mechanisms suppress violence and achieve relative stability. True reconciliation which is critical for nation-building is never achieved. Among loser ethnic groups (hereafter loser groups), resistance to selective amnesia and simultaneous preoccupation with collective memory of victimisation, discrimination and injustice continue to reinforce sentiments of group exceptionality and separatist impulses rather than national consciousness. Therefore, cautious expression of citizenship among segments of the loser groups continues to attract mutual suspicion and distrust from leadership of post-conflict states. It is concluded that the challenge of social contradictions in post-conflict societies is serious because neither the state nor loser groups positively deploy memory of conflict for nation-building. A new reconciliatory approach drawn largely from lessons of history is recommended for post-conflict nation-building efforts in post-conflict African states. Positive appropriation and deployment of memory for nation-building ensures amnesty and restoration without repercussions; and remembrance without resentment.</p> Obinna Iroanya, Salomo Ndapulamo, Gabriella Nguluwe Copyright (c) 2021 Unisa Press Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Migration Dynamics and the Making of New Diasporic Language and Cultural Communities in South Africa, 2000–2020: An Entrepreneurial Perspective <p>Migration, enterprise and the related language and culture dynamics are critical to South Africa and Zimbabwe. In the past, some scholars were of the view that the language and cultural communities created by migration pose a threat, and others argued that they are advantageous. This article presents a single-factor analytical approach to issues, which suggests that co-existing modalities should be worked out for the host citizens to accept the migrants without reservations. This acceptance is imperative as its negation results in some contexts to the flaring of ugly xenophobic manifestations. The argument presented in this article is pertinent to African languages and education, the African Union, the United Nations, civic, humanitarian organisations, respective governments, interested stakeholders and language communities, amongst others. It provides insight on how to manage cultures and morals among migrants of diverse categories. The article used a mixed research methodology. It reviews ideas on migration globally and in Africa in particular, analysing how migration contributes towards emerging language and cultural societies or communities. A sample of 100 respondents was used for this study. The paper suggests that there should be unity, deregulation and liberalisation of movement of people across the continent for trade and skills-sharing to improve sustainability. The article intends to guide African leaders to co-exist and to encourage fair competition for continental expansion, poverty alleviation and development of positive international language policies. It is one of the recent attempts to expound on the existing perspectives on migration dynamics and the formation of viable diasporic language communities in Africa and highlight their contribution towards ubuntu.</p> Medicine Magocha, Dr. Johannes Ratsikana Rammala Copyright (c) 2021 Unisa Press Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000