Education as Change 2022-04-01T08:48:21+00:00 Na-iem Dollie Open Journal Systems <p><em>Education as Change</em> is an internationally accredited, peer-reviewed scholarly journal that publishes original articles reflecting critically on issues of equality in education and on the ways in which educational practices contribute to transformation in non-formal, formal and informal contexts.</p> Alienated Learning in the Context of Curricular Reforms 2022-03-14T19:19:36+00:00 Yi Lian Kwok Kuen Tsang Jocelyn Lai Ngok Wong Guanyu Li <p>In neoliberal contexts, schools are accountable for educational quality, and effectiveness is measured by objective indicators, such as examination scores. Schools tend to become committed to preparing students for examinations rather than all-round and complete personal development, making it difficult for students to identify the meaningful connections between themselves and learning activities, and, in turn, resulting in negative learning experiences. Marxist theorists refer to this condition as alienated learning, that is, the internal contradiction between the learner’s self and learning labour. In contrast, curricular reforms across the globe have promoted a progressive pedagogy that values engaging students in the full range of life experiences in education, enabling them to overcome alienated learning. Yet the effects of curricular reforms are still unclear. The present study sheds light on the extent to which reforms permit students to confront alienated learning. To achieve this aim, the study investigated 44 Hong Kong secondary and undergraduate students with photovoice methods. Its findings suggest that the effects of these curricular reforms are minimal, though they offer opportunities for students to explore their interests. Many students will still experience alienated learning; their interests continue to be subordinated to examinations and even devalued by their schools and teachers.</p> 2022-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yi Lian, Kwok Kuen Tsang, Jocelyn Lai Ngok Wong, Guanyu Li Teaching and Learning Paulo Freire: South Africa’s Communities of Struggle 2022-04-01T08:48:21+00:00 Luke Sinwell <p>This article highlights both the internal educative practices of social movements and how these practices can effectively link to building Freirean pedagogies within higher education institutions. At the heart of this possibility lies the democratic transformation of relations between students and teachers on the one hand and researchers and activists on the other. I draw from two case studies of my own research on community-based organisations and workers’ movements in post-apartheid South Africa, which point to the possibilities and challenges of developing Freirean approaches within the neoliberal higher education context. The article suggests that if the goal of education is to challenge systems of oppression, then social justice and the democratisation of the knowledge project must be the guiding principles we employ to navigate our everyday teaching and learning practices both inside and outside the academy.</p> 2022-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Luke Sinwell A Taxi Ride to Critical Literacy: High School Students as Co-Researchers and Text Analysts 2021-12-09T09:21:28+00:00 Rockie Sibanda <p>This article describes a critical literacy research project undertaken with English Additional Language students at a South African township school. Students were invited to take on the position of researchers in gathering and analysing bumper stickers found in commuter minibuses known as <em>itekisi</em> (taxi). These everyday texts in English and African languages are salient for the students’ discourse communities. Bringing them into English lessons validates the use of languages and discourses that multilingual students inhabit and draws on their ability to move fluidly between languages. Framed by critical discourse analysis theory, this project aimed to facilitate students’ abilities to develop and use critical literacy knowledge and skills in analysing taxi bumper stickers. The findings indicate that the students were able to demonstrate some criticality as they investigated multiple interpretations of the texts by community members and themselves. Inviting students to investigate texts drawn from their own communities was envisaged as enabling their development as critical readers with a social justice orientation to texts. However, their relentless negativity towards taxi drivers made it difficult for them to keep their focus on the texts, suggesting that teachers’ selection of salient texts for lessons with a focus on critical literacy may not always achieve the intended outcomes.</p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rockie Sibanda Achieving Universal Digital Literacy through Universal Design for Learning in Open Educational Resources 2021-05-31T09:48:11+00:00 Desirée Ayuso-del Puerto Prudencia Gutiérrez-Esteban <p>Over the years, the Spanish education authorities have proposed various measures, such as the creation of Open Educational Resources (OERs), to guarantee the inclusion of all students in the education system. However, the literature on this topic indicates the persistence of certain challenges relating to the accessibility of OERs. In this regard, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is presented as a possible solution to this problem as it advocates the personalisation of learning and facilitates the achievement of universal digital literacy. This study seeks to investigate the accessibility of OERs’ design for those early stages in education that are managed by the Spanish education authorities. To this end, a guide of indicators has been designed to assess OERs in accordance with the principles of UDL. The sample is made up of 67 OERs, selectively based on a number of requirements. This study uses a quantitative and exploratory research methodology for the analysis of the data obtained. The main findings highlight the shortcomings of OERs in terms of accessibility, adaptability and universality, demonstrating that OERs do not respond to the principles of UDL.</p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Desirée Ayuso-del Puerto, Prudencia Gutiérrez-Esteban If Not in Science, Then Where Are the Women? A Content Analysis of School Textbooks 2021-07-15T18:36:49+00:00 Aleksandra Gajda Agnieszka Wolowicz <p>This article analyses the representation of femininity in school textbooks in search of elements that discourage girls from taking up scientific educational paths. Quantitative content analysis and elements of the constant comparison method were used to examine the content of 75 Polish textbooks. Significant differences were identified in the number of male and female characters, their ages, financial resources, occupations, family roles and mental characteristics. Interestingly, the authors of the analysed textbooks are mostly women, which seems to indicate a manifestation of self-discrimination. These results indicate the existence of mechanisms discouraging females from a scientific career and are discussed in light of Hofstede’s masculinity-femininity theory.</p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aleksandra Gajda, Agnieszka Wolowicz Radical Solutions for Education in a Crisis Context: COVID-19 as an Opportunity for Global Learning, edited by Daniel Burgos, Ahmed Tlili and Anita Tabacco 2021-12-09T13:02:44+00:00 Ting Wei Juan Yang <p>Springer, Singapore. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. 2021. pp. 320.</p> <p>ISBN: 978-981-15-7869-4, <a href=""></a></p> 2022-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ting Wei, Juan Yang Teaching Care During Covid-19: Reflective Assessment for Becoming-Historians 2021-07-26T09:06:14+00:00 Sarah Godsell <p>This article argues that the Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) that took place during the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 left learners and teachers alike awash in feelings of helplessness, loss, and anguish. While online learning literacy and pedagogy have improved over the course of 2020 and 2021, and interesting and important innovations have been implemented and explored, the foundational inequalities have not lessened or disappeared. This article argues for the use of care as a necessary pedagogy in the virtual classroom using a case study of one class. The labour of care needs to be considered as part of the labour of pedagogy during Covid-19. I argue for care being built into both pedagogy and assessment as part of a radical pedagogy for this time. I explore reflective assessment embedded in a pedagogy of care as a way to, if not combat, recognise and respond to the inequalities embodied in ERT and the society it exists in, towards radical change. Active reflection draws out the impact that ERT has had on the “being” and “becoming” of pre-service History teachers.</p> 2022-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sarah Godsell