Gender Questions <p><em>Gender Questions</em>&nbsp;is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed research journal that publishes high quality articles on all aspects of gender studies, including feminist research, masculinity studies and studies into alternative sexualities.&nbsp;<em>Gender Questions </em>seeks to contribute to South African knowledge production about gender by providing a forum for serious scholarship and rigorous theoretical engagement with Gender Studies.</p> Unisa Press en-US Gender Questions 2309-9704 Thriving in the Shadows: Black Men’s Habitus in the Academy <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Notwithstanding the recent turn towards research about Black academics in South Africa, the experiences of Black men academics have largely remained out of view. The numerical data suggest that they are better represented and hold a higher proportion of doctorates and seniority when compared to Black women academics. Against this background, this paper sought to understand the experiential accounts of Black men academics in order to apprehend their career journeys with the view towards illuminating their relative advantage over Black women. By conducting a discourse analysis of interviews with 15 Black men academics across three universities, the paper elucidated two significant findings. Despite a history of racialised exclusion of Black men and Black women, relative to reports of discrimination against Black women, Black men academics reported relatively smooth career progression. Secondly, the study found that Black men academics tend to engage in emotionally distant care work with students. The findings suggest that despite the race penalty, the patriarchal habitus of the South African university is an important protective attribute that enables Black men to better navigate their careers relative to Black women. Moreover, the masculine orientation to gendered orders of care work means that Black men are insulated from the emotional struggles of students. This implies that in addition to racially conscious support for Black academics, Black women require greater gender-aware backing and an interrogation of the academic field and habituation demands that result in the unfair distribution of affective care work.</span></p> Hugo Canham Copyright (c) 2022 Unisa Press 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 10 1 18 pages 18 pages 10.25159/2412-8457/9796 Confronting Gender Inequalities in Education Leadership: A Case of Zimbabwe <p>The persistence of the marginalisation of women has dominated education leadership research recently. This study examined literature on women’s education leadership and management through the lens of social justice. The study used Shields’s tenets of transformative leadership to unearth and dissect issues of gender discrimination in education leadership. As a catalyst for a recent systematic review of research on Zimbabwean women’s education leadership literature, the study reviewed 22 publications used earlier in the systematic research review. The studies were identified through numerous electronic searches following carefully defined eligibility criteria. A thematic analysis was conducted through the use of mind maps to deduce common themes. The results suggested a transformation of persistent political, institutional, structural, economic, cultural and social inequalities and human rights violations to achieve social justice in education leadership. Further research should be undertaken to examine the root causes of persistent gender imbalances and the failure of gender equity.</p> Zvisinei Moyo Copyright (c) 2022 Unisa Press 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 10 1 23 pages 23 pages 10.25159/2412-8457/7218 Active, Adventurous and Heroic: Visual Constructions of Masculinity in the Afrikaans Church <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">In this article, I consider material collected from three Afrikaans churches in the Pretoria-Centurion area that visually relate masculinity to aspects such as physical activity, adventurism and heroism. I develop a background from the literature to male physical ontology, Muscular Christianity, the Promise Keepers, Afrikaner Christianity, Afrikaner nationalism and the interconnections between them. I also highlight the problematic tendencies involved in physicality as male ontology in terms of inherent misogyny, patriarchy, domination and, at worst, violence. I analyse the visual culture of the Dutch Reformed congregations of Moreletapark and kerk<em>sonder</em>mure (Church Without Walls), as well as that of the Apostolic Faith Mission Church, Doxa Deo, via a Barthesian (1972) visual semiotic approach. In my analysis, I found an emphasis in the representation of masculine physical activity on camping, sporting activities, adventurism, outdoorism, male bonding activities and the domination of nature. Finally, I contrast and problematise the prevalence of these representations to those of women, which are mainly decorative and subordinate to their male counterparts.</span></p> Leandra Koenig -Visagie Copyright (c) 2022 Unisa Press 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 10 1 34 pages 34 pages 10.25159/2412-8457/10304 Blind Medusa: The Portrayal of Liza Pursewarden in Lawrence Durrell’s Alexandria Quartet <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">In Lawrence Durrell’s <em>Alexandria Quartet</em>, the major female characters, Justine and Clea, each have their own eponymous books. However, minor female characters in the novels have notably received more limited scholarly attention. This article will consider one of these marginal female characters, Liza Pursewarden, who appears in both the novels <em>Mountolive</em> and <em>Clea</em>. I will argue that the portrayal of Liza, by David Mountolive, her brother Ludwig Pursewarden and the character L. G. Darley, moulds her into a Gothicised fetish object onto which they project their fear of castration and lack.</span></p> Allison Kreuiter Copyright (c) 2022 Unisa Press 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 10 1 16 pages 16 pages 10.25159/2412-8457/10159 Women’s Narratives on Gender Equality and Subjective Well-being in contemporary South Africa <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">South Africa has committed to gender justice and concomitant legal frameworks over the last 27 years. Yet, there has been little evaluation of how this impacted women’s lives and sense of happiness. While feminist scholars are sceptical of the popular discourse on happiness, there has been concern with the importance of embodiment, subjective experience and affect in challenging patriarchal logics. This paper argues that happiness should be an issue in gender justice efforts. We should be concerned about subjective positive affect and well-being in policies directed at gender justice. The article discusses a feminist qualitative study that explored links between gender equality and happiness among South African women. Qualitative individual interviews were held with women considered key informants. Focus groups were held with women not involved in the gender sector or happiness studies, but who could relate their everyday experiences. While we cannot assess the impact of gender equality measures on women’s well-being in post-apartheid, we wanted to hear what women say about the possibility for happiness and gender equality. The results suggest that gender equality and happiness are perceived to be entangled in complex, nuanced and non-linear ways. Three themes emerged that illustrate this enmeshed relationship: 1) the perception of gender equality as determinant of and necessary for happiness; 2) the reported gap between gender equality promises and women’s lived experiences; and 3) perceptions that happiness is possible without gender equality. The paper argues the importance of critical considerations of positive affect, sense of well-being and happiness in any gender justice project. </span></p> Carmine Rustin Tamara Shefer Copyright (c) 2022 Unisa Press 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 10 1 18 pages 18 pages 10.25159/2412-8457/9343 Gender, Sexuality and Citizenship: Reflections on African Diasporic Queer Imaginaries <p>This article interrogates how the bordering processes of both human bodies and geographical spaces impact on the citizenship rights of African queer subjects as represented in Diriye Osman’s <em>Fairytales for Lost Children</em> (2013) and <em>Queer Africa 2: New Stories</em> (2017), edited by Makhosazana Xaba and Karen Martin. I argue that, while exile is often represented as an alternative safe space for African queer subjects away from the continent’s heteropatriarchal authorities, narratives of suffering, alienation, and loss still dominate diasporic queer African literature. This suggests that exile may not be enabling enough in granting agency for the unthreatened performance of queer genders and sexualities since vulnerability from homophobic violence still manifests as a debilitating challenge beyond the borders of certain nation-states. The short stories analysed here establish that the denial of full citizenship rights to queer Africans does not begin at the level of their exclusion from some African geographical spaces, but rather, such exclusions begin with imagined geographies of the human body that create limits to acceptable notions of gender and sexual performance.</p> Wesley Macheso Copyright (c) 2022 Unisa Press 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 10 1 18 pages 18 pages 10.25159/2412-8457/10179 Rereading the Zimbabwean “Land Question”: Gender and the Symbolic Meanings of “Land” <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">As the source of all food production, land in southern Africa has been highly contested. Using a variety of texts that express themes relating to land, I show that in Zimbabwe, in the face of massive political competition, land became the foundation for reform and national sovereignty in dominant nationalist, patriarchal and gendered discourses. I demonstrate that cultural texts centred on land have been embodied and generated in familial troupes, revealing dominant gendered and sexualised overtones that naturalise land ownership and particular land uses. At the same time, these texts reveal symbolic violence meted out on particular bodies. This discursive analysis of texts examines the gendered and sexualised discourses associated with Zimbabwe’s national reforms and security, where the imagining of the security, protection and sanctity of land has been driven by nationalist ideas about its centrality in the healthy (re)production of obedient social and national subjects.</span></p> Tinashe Mawere Copyright (c) 2021 Unisa Press 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 10 1 17 pages 17 pages 10.25159/2412-8457/7411 Eating from One Pot: The Dynamics of Survival in Poor South African Households, by Sarah Mosoetsa <p>Not applicable.&nbsp;</p> Percyval Bayane Copyright (c) 2022 Unisa Press 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 10 1 9 pages 9 pages 10.25159/2412-8457/9982