Thematisations of Child Abuse by Xitsonga Music Composers
Keywords:child abuse, Xitsonga music, phyisical abuse, psychological abuse, violence, contestations
Abuse in its multifarious manifestations, for example, physical, sexual, emotional, economic, verbal and psychological abuse, as well as harassment, stalking, and property vandalisation, is currently treated as both a global and national crisis. This malady permeates a variety of spaces. It is notable that even musicians devote their creative outputs’ thematic foci to confrontations and agentive contestations against abuse. Some Xitsonga music composers in particular have been adamant in vocalising their objections to child abuse through songs, an area which is yet to receive broad scholarly attention. This article employed a qualitative approach and discourse analysis to reflect on three purposely selected Xitsonga songs that thematise child abuse in its varied forms. This article employed literary theory to analyse song lyrics. The songs are analysed based on a predetermined set of themes, namely, notions of child abuse, condemnations of child abuse, conscientising society about child abuse, and the selected musicians’ proposed remedial interventions against child abuse. The article contributes a contrastive dimension to the ongoing discourse on abuse in general and child abuse in particular from the perspective of Xitsonga musicians. The article recommends, with heavy reliance on the sampled songs, the ways through which the malaise of child abuse can be best addressed and possibly even eradicated in society.
Andrews, G., J. Corry, T. Slade, C. Issakidis, and H. Swanston. 2004. “Child Sexual Abuse.” In Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors, edited by M. Ezzati, A. D. Lopez, A. Rodgers and C. J. L. Murray, 1851–940. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Collins English Dictionary. 2006. 2nd ed. London: Harper and Collins Publishers.
Cunningham, A., P. Jaffe, L. Baker, T. Dick, S. Malla, N. Mazaheri, and S. Poisson. 1998. Theory-Derived Explanations of Male Violence against Female Partners: Literature Updates and Related Implications for Treatment and Evaluation. London: London Family Court Clinic.
Dr Thomas Chauke Na Shinyori Sisters. 1989. “Ndzi N’wana Mani.” Track No. 3 on Shimatsatsa No. 09. Gallo Record Company. Released September 18, 1989. Composed by Dr Thomas Chauke. Compact Disc.
Dr Thomas Chauke Na Shinyori Sisters. 2007. “Qweta (Vana Va Mufi).” Track No. 6 on Shimatsatsa No. 27. The CCP Record Company. Released January 1, 2008. Composed by Dr Thomas Chauke. Compact Disc.
Eckenrode, J., M. Laird, and J. Doris. 1993. “School Performance and Disciplinary Problems among Abused and Neglected Children.” Developmental Psychology 29 (1): 53–62. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.52
Fang, X., D. S. Brown, C. S. Florence, and J. A. Mercy. 2012. “The Economic Burden of Child Maltreatment in the United States and Implications for Prevention.” Child Abuse and Neglect 36 (2): 156–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.10.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.10.006
Gelles, R. J. 1973. “Child Abuse as Psychopathology: A Social Critique and Reformulation.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 43 (4): 611–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1973.tb00830.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1973.tb00830.x
Heyman, S., and J. I. Slep. 2002. “Child Abuse.” Microsoft Encarta. http://microsoftcorporation.org. Accessed January 4, 2023.
Khumalo, A. B. 2012. “Nkanelo wa ku Oviwa ka Timfanelo ta Vana eka Tsalwa ra Madumelani hi E.W.G. Mbhombi na Hi ya Kwihi? Hi M.J. Maluleke.” MA diss., University of Limpopo. http://hdl.handle.net/10386/2301.
Lamula, A. T. 2012. “Ku Oviwa ka Timfanelo ta Vana eka Tsalwa ra Khale ka Makwangala hi F. Rikhotso.” MA diss., University of Limpopo.
Levi, B. H., and S. G. Portwood. 2011. “Reasonable Suspicion of Child Abuse: Finding a Common Language.” Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (1): 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-720X.2011.00550.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-720X.2011.00550.x
Matshwa Bemuda na Magenge Sisters. 2017. “Mayanda.” Track on Chom na chom No. 2. Boss Music. Released January 13, 2017. Composer by Freddie Masingi. Compact Disc.
Mayimele, V. K. 2013. “Nkanelo wa ku oviwa ka timfanelo ta vana hi vavanuna eka tsalwa ra Rhukubya ro swoswelaembilwini hi M.G Magagane na N’wana wa tinhlaluhi M.J Maluleke.” Honours diss., University of Limpopo.
Miller, B. F., C. B. Keane, and M. O’Toole. 2003. MillerKeane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
RSA (The Republic of South Africa). 1996. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, No. 108 of 1996. Pretoria: Government Printers. Accessed August 1, 2023. https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/images/a108-96.pdf.
Slep, A. M. S., R. E. Heyman, and J. D. Snarr. 2011. “Child Emotional Aggression and Abuse: Definitions and Prevalence.” Child Abuse and Neglect 35 (10): 783–96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.07.002
Sullivan, P. M., and J. F. Knutson. 2000. “Maltreatment and Disabilities: A Population-Based Epidemiological Study.” Child Abuse and Neglect 24 (10): 1257–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00190-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00190-3
Sullivan, P. M. 2003. “Violence against Children with Disabilities: Prevention, Public Policy, and Research Implications.” Conference Commissioned Paper for the National Conference on Preventing and Intervening in Violence against Children and Adults with Disabilities, May 6–7, 2002, SUNY Upstate Medical University, New York.
Umobong, M. E. 2010. “Child Abuse and Its Implications for the Educational Sector in Nigeria.” OGIRISI: A New Journal of African Studies 7: 106–118. https://doi.org/10.4314/og.v7i1.57927. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/og.v7i1.57927
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau. 2008. Child Maltreatment 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau. 2017. Child Maltreatment 2015. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau. Accessed August 3, 2023. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/data-research/child-maltreatment.
How to Cite
Copyright will be vested in Unisa Press. However, as long as you do not use the article in ways which would directly conflict with the publisher's business interests, you retain the right to use your own article (provided you acknowledge the published version of the article) as follows:
- to make further copies of all or part of the published article for your use in classroom teaching;
- to make copies of the final accepted version of the article for internal distribution within your institution, or to place it on your own or your institution's website or repository, or on a site that does not charge for access to the article, but you must arrange not to make the final accepted version of the article available to the public until 18 months after the date of acceptance;
- to reuse all or part of this material in a compilation of your own works or in a textbook of which you are the author, or as the basis for a conference presentation.