Social and Health Sciences <p><strong>Hybrid Open Access</strong></p> <p>Social and Health Sciences (formerly the African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention) is a multidisciplinary forum for critical discussion and debate among scholars, practitioners, activists, students and policy-makers whose interests and work intersect with the social and health sciences. The journal welcomes theoretical, empirical, applied and policy submissions on such topics as: violence in its multiple forms, injury, health and safety promotion, community engagement, epidemiology, health economics, health systems research, structural and social determinants of health, and knowledge production in the social and health sciences.</p> en-US (Nick Malherbe) (Pieter Rall) Wed, 04 Oct 2023 11:23:54 +0000 OJS 60 Preface to the Themed Issue on "Gender, Sexualities and Place: (Re)Imagining and (Re)Making Urban Spaces” Tamara Shefer, Alan Mabin Copyright (c) 2023 Unisa Press Mon, 04 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Genders, Sexualities and Cities: Global Contexts and Local Possibilities <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">This article is primarily a review of international research-based literatures that explore the three areas of genders, sexualities and cities and the intersections between them. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which diverse literatures bring gender and sexuality studies to the city, and city studies to exploration of genders and sexualities. The article intends to locate this special issue, informing those interested in widening the field, and generating new questions for conceptualisation, research and writing in the coming decades. It draws cautiously on global conceptualisation of the issues, then sets out a variety of approaches including feminist, gay, queer and related perspectives. It moves on to the ways in which gender and sexualities research might contribute to “better cities”. The article also outlines contributions to this special issue of the journal on “Genders, sexualities and place: (Re)Imagining and (re)making urban spaces”, relating them to themes in global literature.</span></p> Alan Mabin, Tamara Shefer Copyright (c) 2023 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 National Imaginary and the Catholic Church: Queer Migrant Women’s Experiences of Exclusionary Moments <p class="Abstract">In this article, I discuss the imagined boundaries of belonging in Iceland, the political projects of national identity and religion, and the ways in which those projects affect the everyday social formations for LBTQ+ migrant women. I highlight the interlocutors’ experiences of exclusion, foregrounding resistance and resilience in facing unequal power relations, including racism, sexism, heterosexism and cisgenderism. In the article, I apply theories of critical race, postcolonialism, queer-of-colour critique, queer theology, the relationality of space and place, as well as the politics of belonging and a sense of belonging. I draw on feminist writings concerning queer migrations, intersectionality and assemblage, to analyse interlocutors’ multilayered experiences within the Icelandic context, other cultural frames of reference, and transnationally. I analyse semi-structured interviews with 28 interlocutors, who identify as LBTQ+ migrant women, demigirl, gender queer and non-binary. Six interlocutors are racialised as black or brown, 22 as white, hailing from the Global South and Global North. Two themes were carved out of the analysis, relating to the genealogy and aesthetics of racialisation and othering in Iceland, and experiences of exclusion and resistance within the Catholic Church. In line with the analysis, I advocate for dismantling social hierarchies and exclusionary power structures by foregrounding structural violence and microagressions against disenfranchised groups of individuals in addition to highlighting queer worldmaking practices.</p> Linda Sólveigar- og Guðmundsdóttir Copyright (c) 2023 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Sexualities Turn Towards Urban Informality <p>In this article, I set forth the case as to why scholarship on sexuality may wish to engage more directly with scholarship on urban informality especially as it relates to the urban South. Sexualities scholarship has long acknowledged an imbalance in the types of location researched, with the majority of studies having taken place in sites of relative privilege in the Global North. However, there has yet to be a sustained consideration as to the ways in which the particularities of the urban South – such as widespread urban informality – may offer important opportunities for sexualities scholars to engage more directly with locations beyond the Global North. In relation specifically to examples drawn from sub-Saharan Africa, in this article, I explore first the informal economic sector and examine the possibilities of considering the ways in which non-heteronormative sexualities may form a key but so far under-researched part of this sector. I then examine the ways in which scholarship can consider the particular strategic and pragmatic ways by which non-heteronormative groups and communities may be navigating informal built environments, not only to survive but also to potentially thrive.</p> Andrew Tucker Copyright (c) 2023 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Genders, Sexualities and Cities: A Review of South African Literatures <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Well-developed bodies of literature—of course with major lacunae as well as strengths—exist in relation to two areas of research and thought relevant to the emergence of better cities in the tortured territory and society of South Africa. The more personal scale deals with genders and sexualities and is energetic, young, globally linked and relatively open. At city scale, extensive literatures are voluminous though sometimes tied to global urban conceptual traditions, although there are many creative and original contributions too. From the perspective of intersections between the person and the city, what is lacking is more substantial work which brings questions common in genders and sexualities literatures to city scale enquiry, and some of the techniques of city enquiry into genders and sexualities research more broadly. There exists, however, a variety of types of work which consciously (sometimes otherwise) brings gender and sexuality studies to the city, and, in turn, brings city studies to exploration of genders and sexualities. The modest purpose of this intervention is to survey such literatures and to generate new questions for conceptualisation, research and writing. The intention is to aid new entrants to the field of genders, sexualities and cities to add creatively and substantially to scholarship.</span></p> Alan Mabin Copyright (c) 2023 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Women’s Stories of Waste Picking in the City: “People Look at Us Like We Are Mad, but I Don’t Care” <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The gendered dynamics of informal work in southern cities across the globe has been well documented. Women in the informal sector, usually already marginalised through racialised and class positionalities, face predictable work challenges in patriarchal society, lower pay, longer work hours, more family responsibilities, less social protections, and safety concerns linked to workspaces. In this article, we explore the specific challenges that women waste pickers in the inner city of Durban, South Africa, experience. The study draws on ethnographic research with eight waste pickers. Beyond the challenges, the narrative data illustrates how and why women waste pickers navigate and negotiate for space and safety in the inner city of Durban. We highlight how women build social relationships as a mitigation strategy against material and varied safety concerns. These social relationships work across formal business linkages and relationships on the street. These mitigation strategies are simultaneously gendered responses to work in the city and innovative business practices. The experiences of women waste pickers in the city indicates that it is left to the women themselves, individually and in small collectives, to find ways to navigate issues of discrimination and exclusions linked to work, gender and space in the city. Ultimately, we draw on the experiences of women waste pickers in inner city Durban to ask questions about what lessons can be learnt to advocate better municipal planning that proactively deals with gender and justice in the city.</span></p> Princess A. Sibanda, Kira Erwin Copyright (c) 2023 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 “The Great Lesbian Monster Show”: GLOW’s Lesbian Forum Navigating Johannesburg, South Africa, 1991–1995 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa, was regarded as a relatively gay-friendly space from the 1970s into the 1990s, but much of the research that interrogates this does so from an overwhelmingly gay and male lens. In this research, I seek to disrupt the view that Johannesburg’s gay subculture was dominated by gay men, and instead seek to examine the politico-queer spaces that lesbian women occupied. Queer literature often regards gay men as the norm within academic studies. In this article, I highlight the importance of lesbian women within South African history. I place the voices and movements of lesbian women within broader ongoing research in queer southern African history. Within this larger history the voices of women are further marginalised while those of gay men are brought to the fore. In this article, I seek to correct this by examining the prominence of lesbian women with South Africa’s gay and lesbian spaces in the 1990s. In order to examine these spaces, I analyse the Lesbian Forum, a group directly linked to the Gay and Lesbian Organisation of the Witwatersrand (GLOW). In this article, I argue that the intricacies of Johannesburg was vital to allowing women in the Lesbian Forum a space to operate.</span></p> Jonathan Botes Copyright (c) 2023 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Queer Belonging in Durban, South Africa: Thoughts from the Zanele Muholi Homecoming Exhibition <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">In this article, I seek to queer belonging in a post-apartheid city space. I will do this by taking a queer orientation towards a particular public space—the Durban/eThekwini City Hall in South Africa, and a particular set of experiences I had there during the Zanele Muholi Homecoming exhibition in 2017–18. I will also seek to use these to unsettle the concept of belonging. This queering happens at two levels. First, how the relatively mainstream or institutional space of City Hall space was queered through the exhibition of a black queer artist at the Durban Art Gallery. Given that the City Hall was built to symbolise Britishness in the colonies, this occurrence, although momentary, is illuminating. Second, during my experiences at the exhibition there were several moments which stuck with me. I take one of these which took place with my mother and reflect on it to complicate our understandings of belonging. Ultimately, belonging operates in complex ways within post-apartheid cities demonstrated by one particular place and experience in Durban. For LGBTIQ+ people, belonging is many things. In this article, I demonstrate the possibilities of public art to claim belonging in a city not designed for queer black life, and some of the slippages and productivity of “not belonging” using the notion of reciprocity.</span></p> Caili Forrest Copyright (c) 2023 Unisa Press Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 (Un)Belonging in the City: Research, Theory and Practice Highlighting LGBTQIA+ Youths Experiencing Homelessness in Cape Town, South Africa <p>LGBTQIA+ youths who experience homelessness in South Africa face a unique set of experiences that is disregarded and sometimes unacknowledged. Using existing literature, the minority strengths theory, the minority stress theory, original research, and practice knowledge, we provide insight into the context in which these youths exist. While more research needs to be conducted to develop interventions and further refine existing interventions for more impact, we highlight some actions being taken in Cape Town, South Africa, to deal with some of the needs of the population. The Pride Shelter Trust is leading the way in providing services to deal with some of the needs of the multiple marginalised members of the LGBTQIA+ population that it serves. In this commentary, we highlight some of the work being done at the Shelter and offer recommendations for more inclusive practices at shelters for people experiencing homelessness that may not have an emphasis on LGBTQIA+ populations.</p> Maurice N. Gattis, Nicole J. Alexander, Neil Henderson Copyright (c) 2023 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mapping the Perception of Urban Safety, Space and Livelihood of Girl Street Children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Street children remain a social phenomenon in many low- and middle-income countries in which they experience alienation, discrimination, and social and spatial exclusion. The aim of this study was to identify and understand how girl street children perceive safety, space, and their livelihood on the urban streets of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, and to identify the multilevel components and processes that can contribute to improving the effectiveness of interventions for this group. A mixed-methods design was applied using a critical community-based participatory research and asset-mapping approach. Both quantitative descriptive statistics and qualitative thematic content analysis were used. The results highlight that the girl street children are subjected to various forms of hegemony linked to power, space and place, gender, and socio-economic marginalisation. Factors that contribute to their safety and survival include a sense of place, belonging and connectedness, and access to various tangible and intangible assets in their created spaces. We recommend further exploration of the mobilisation of assets to transform the quality of life and livelihood and to enhance the safety of the girl street children.</span></p> Elli Nur Hayati, Dessy Pranungsari, Ahmad Muhammad Diponegoro, Ghouwa Ismail, Naiema Taliep Copyright (c) 2022 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Women’s Experiences of Managing Fatigue During Breast Cancer Treatment: Strategies from Patients in a Low-Resource Setting <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Cancer-related fatigue can lead to a reduced health-related quality of life among patients with cancer. We explored the experiences of fatigue among women undergoing breast cancer treatment at a public hospital in South Africa. We recruited 12 participants using purposive sampling. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by registered clinical psychologists. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. A thematic analysis of the data produced three themes, namely, fatigue is tiredness, the pervasive impact of fatigue and fatigue management strategies. These strategies included rest, pacing, physical activity, energy drinks, instrumental support and cognitive strategies such as distraction and self-talk. Our recommendation is that healthcare providers need to prioritise communication about fatigue and provide appropriate management strategies.</span></p> Rizwana Roomaney, Bronwyne Coetzee, Paula Smith, Jo Daniels Copyright (c) 2023 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Poor Stream Conditions on the Health of Stream Workers in Umlazi, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Despite increased efforts by the South African Government to minimise environmental degradation, the surface water in urban water sources is still highly polluted. This is a hazard to many urban and suburban communities and workers who use the water from urban river environments. In this study, we aim to determine the impact of poor stream conditions on the health of stream workers in Umlazi. We used the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework to explore the susceptibility to and the severity of health hazards that affect stream workers’ health state. A qualitative case study design was used. The data were collected through interviews (<em>n</em> = 25) from community-based cooperatives and employees of municipality departments who are involved in the management of streams in the Umlazi Township. The data were recorded, transcribed, coded and thematically analysed. Current stream conditions were perceived to be deteriorating, which affected stream workers’ health and perception of safety. The streams were noted to have medical waste, venomous snakes, other pests and insects, sewer leakages and illegal sewer connections created to compensate for the general lack of services from the municipality. Cholera and diarrhoea were identified as the prominent health threats because of the prevailing stream conditions. Improving the working conditions of sanitation workers would contribute to ensuring the health and promoting the well-being of all people of all ages in the area by reducing their exposure to unsafe chemicals on the job, ensuring sustainable management of water and sanitation for all and providing decent work conditions.</span></p> Ntokozo Amanda Xaba, Tennyson Mgutshini Copyright (c) 2023 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 “It Seems like it’s Helping”: Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among Breast Cancer Patients at a South African Breast Clinic <p>The use of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of breast cancer is widely documented in low- and middle-income countries. However, there are limited data on the use of complementary and alternative medicine among breast cancer patients in South Africa. In this study, we examined the use of complementary medicine among a small sample of women attending a breast cancer clinic in a public health hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa; a context in which structural violence is rife. A convenience sample of 17 women participated in semi-structured interviews. We used an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. We found that breast cancer patients’ use of complementary and alternative medicine was motivated by (1) pragmatic reasons related to health system delays in obtaining biopsy results, confirmation of diagnosis and between diagnosis and start of treatment, (2) psychological benefits, namely, enhancing holistic well-being and fostering a sense of hope and agency despite the physical disease, and (3) sociocultural influences. Such information was based on folk knowledge and cultural beliefs. Patient-centred care in this context may be enhanced by collaboration between biomedical and practitioners who provide complementary and alternative medicine to support transparency in patient treatment options, negotiate the various domains of patient care (physical, psychological, sociocultural) and contribute to earlier detection, diagnosis and better treatment outcomes. In addition, further research on the systemic complexities of structural violence and the way in which it shapes the illness experiences of women is necessary.</p> Jennifer Githaiga, Leslie Swartz Copyright (c) 2023 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Literature Review: Generating a South African-Based Theory on the Development of Violent Youth Behaviour in South Africa <p>The article is aimed towards guiding the reader along the road I have travelled towards realising the importance of generating South African theories on youth violence for improved violence prevention interventions. The article reflects important insights that I have developed on the way in which the predictability of violence is investigated. These insights revolve around the study of risk and protective factors, the development of models predicting the future occurrence of violence, and theories used to explain the development of youth violence. Challenges identified are that psychological mechanisms are not accounted for when working with risk and protective factors and predictive models, that youth violence is mostly studied under an umbrella term reflecting a collection of youth offences, and that some studies on violent behaviour separate violent behaviour from the context in which it took place. The solution presented is embedded in the generation of theory using the grounded theory methodology, with the aim to redress the challenges to better inform programme theories in prevention programmes for youth violence.</p> Helena Catharina Erasmus Copyright (c) 2021 Social and Health Sciences Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000