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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Author Guidelines

Instructions to Authors: African Historical Review (AHR)

Please adhere strictly to these instructions to facilitate the publication process of articles.



If you are not already registered please register on the AHR website:


Please see the User Guide for further information:


If you are already registered as a Reviewer or in another role you can edit your profile when logged in to also register as an Author. Please see the Users’ Guide:



Please refer to the Users’ Guide for further details:



This guide endeavours to achieve a standardised typographical style and consistent language choices. The main objective is to make it easier for authors, editors, copyeditors, layout editors and all those who publish to know what choices to make in the myriad of existing options. Unisa Press uses the Chicago Manual of Style (


The style guide focuses on two major aspects:

1) Guidelines for technical preparation; 2) Citation guidelines.


1. Guidelines for Technical Preparation of Manuscript


Submit manuscripts electronically—MSWord file.


All graphic material has to be positioned at the correct place in the text. Do not add supplementary files with graphic content. Also consult your journal’s specific requirements, especially in terms of images.


Manuscripts must be presented as: A4 pages; normal margins; 12pt Times Roman; 1.5 line spacing.


Add a line break (enter key) between all paragraphs. Do not apply paragraph styles (hanging indents, automatic spacing after or before, etc.).


Proofing language must be set as UK English (colour—not color; travelled—not traveled; organise; organisation; organising—not -ize).


Do not type double spaces anywhere; not between words, at the end of sentences or after colons.

Type hard spaces (shift + control + space bar) when phrases are preferred to be presented as a unit, e.g.10_000; Vol. 1 (2):_22−21.

Articles should not exceed 9000 words from the first word in the title to the last word in the list of references, including footnotes.


Make sure you follow the guidelines for ensuring a blind peer review.


Then present an indented abstract of not more than 250 words. Abstracts should not contain any footnotes or citations. Do not type the abstract in italics.


Below the abstract, please provide 4–6 keywords for indexing (only proper nouns in capitals).


Distinguish between keywords/phrases with semicolon, e.g. Pentecostal; hymnal records; migration; southern regions of Africa.


Authors should include their affiliation or ORCiD below their name, after the title of the article.


No numbers should be used in headings or in lists


Please note the format and order of information required for the presentation of book reviews:


Oxford Dictionary of Journalism <Book title in italics>

Tony Harcup <Book author name(s) and surname>

Oxford University Press. 2014.Oxford Quick Reference. xiv + pp. 368. <Publisher, date, series and number of pages>

ISBN: 978-0-0000000-1 <ISBN>, <DOI>


Reviewed by Rod Amner <Reviewer details> <ORCiD>

Rhodes University, School of Journalism and Media Studies, South Africa <Affiliation: Institution, Department, Country> <email address>




Do not use the ampersand (&) anywhere in the text or citations; use “and” instead.


In text, only sparingly emphasise words by using italics. Italicisation should otherwise be reserved for book titles and words from a language other than that of the text.


Italicised words/phrases in another language are glossed by an equivalent word/phrase in the language of the text in single inverted commas placed in brackets, e.g. …indoda (“a man”).


Words well-known in South African English are set as roman, for example, lobola, ubuntu, indaba.


Words/terms that need to be singled out as being “borrowed” from another author/source may be placed in double inverted commas.


Titles of standalone publications must be in headline style (significant words are capitalised) and in italics when typed in the text. Titles of articles are placed between “double inverted commas.”


Also see the citation guidelines below for examples.



Acknowledgements appear at the end of the article, should be brief, and recognise sources of financial and logistical support and permission to reproduce materials from other sources. Save a copy of documentation granting such permission. Adherence to copyright rules remains each author’s sole responsibility.




Footnotes with references in Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3—do not use i, ii, iii) are allowed on condition that these are limited to essential notes that enhance the content without impeding the fluent reading of the article.


Footnotes are typed in 10pt. font and single spacing; hanging indent.


Endnotes are not allowed.


Footnotes do not replace the alphabetical list of references at the end of the text. References in notes are regarded as text references and not bibliographic information.



When quoting from a source, use “double inverted commas.”


To quote within a quote, use ‘single inverted commas.’


When quoting more than five lines, indent. Do not print indented text in italics and do not use quotation marks. A citation after the indented quote follows after a full stop, e.g.

According to the report the council will discuss the matter at the next council meeting to be held on 5 January 2017. (Smit 2002, 1)


When quoting within an indented quotation, use “double inverted commas.”


Final full stops and commas are placed inside the quotation marks.


Colons and semicolons are placed outside of quotation marks.


Question and exclamation marks are only placed inside quotation marks if they form part of the quoted material.



Do you know if she is “accredited”?

He asked: “Are you accredited?”


When adding notes to a quote or changing a quotation, use square brackets, e.g. [own translation/emphasis]/[t]oday.



In text, numbers one to nine are in words; numbers 10 and above are in digits.


At the start of a sentence all numbers are in words.


In brackets all numbers are in digits, as for numbers of tables, figures and chapters.

When in text, percentages (below 10) are in words—seven per cent; above 10 are digits—22 per cent/13.5 per cent.


Decimals—7.5 per cent—are always in digits (also in text).


Use the % sign in brackets and per cent in text.



Use Mathtype for display and inline equations, but not for single variables. Single variables should be inserted into the text as Unicode characters.



Abbreviations that begin and end on the same letter as the word, do not get a full stop (Mr/Dr/Eds) but Ed.


Academic degrees: (Preferably without any punctuation) BA; DPhil; MSc



Use the ellipsis when indicating that text has been left out in the middle of a quoted sentence—preferably not at the start or end of the sentence. It is a given that text has been left out preceding and following your quote.


Insert spaces before and after the ellipse.


Use only three full stops for an ellipse (A full stop is added before an ellipsis to indicate the omission of the end of a sentence, unless the sentence is deliberately incomplete. Similarly, a full stop at the end of a sentence in the original is retained before an ellipsis indicating the omission of material immediately following the full stop.)



In May 1862, two new missionaries, Endeman and Albert Nachtigal, joined Grützner and Merensky. … It was decided that Endeman and Grützner continue working. … The latter two eventually established the mission station Botshabelo … which later would play an important role in the Ba-Kopa history.



The unspaced em-dash (—) is used (Alt 0151).

An unspaced en-dash (–), NOT A HYPHEN (-) is used to indicate ranges (e.g. of numbers or page numbers: 15–21).



One initial: Steyn, P. 2009.

Multiple initials: Steyn, P. R. G. 2009. (spaces between initials)



Give the full name when first mentioned (with acronym in brackets), thereafter use the acronym uniformly and consistently: Unisa; CSIR; HSRC; Sabinet/SABINET


et al.

et al. (not italics) Never use in the reference list.

When citing a text with four+ authors, use only the first author’s name followed by et al. in text, but list all authors in the reference list.


Tables and figures

Table headings appear above the tables and are numbered.

E.g. Table 1: Our Table


Figure captions appear below the figures and are numbered.


Captions should include, in the following order:

Figure 1 Artist, title (date). Medium/support, metric dimensions. Name of collection, city of collection, other collection information such as “gift of …”, accession number (copyright or credit-line information in parentheses).


Credit lines should include all elements specified in the letter of permission from the rights holder, institution and/or photographer:


Figure 1: Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (ca. 1482). Tempera on panel, 203 x 315 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence (photograph provided by Scala / Art Resource, New York).


Figure 2: Roman sarcophagus, Death of Meleager (3rd century CE). Detail. Musée du Louvre, Paris (photograph © James Smith, Rome).


Figure 3: Alfred Stieglitz, Equivalent (1925–1927). Gelatin silver print, 11.7 x 9.2 cm. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, anonymous gift (© 2009 Estate of Alfred Stieglitz/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York).


If a scan is used from e.g. a catalogue, this must be indicated by means of an exact reference: Figure 4: Pieter Brueghel the Elder, The Misanthrope (1568). Tempura on canvas, 86 x 85 cm. Signed and dated: ‘BRVEGEL 1568’. Museo e Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte, Naples, catalogue number 585 (reproduced from Martin 1978, figure 37).


Include cited authors in the reference list.


Supply the source below the table or figure, if material is copyrighted.


Linguistic examples in series

Series of linguistic examples should be presented neatly (as borderless tables) and individual examples should only be numbered if they are discussed with reference to that number in the article’s body text. Such numbering should occur consecutively.


The example numbers should be in parentheses and placed next to the left-hand margin.


Numbered examples may be contrasted or compared to one another by using alphabetical numbering for purposes of contrast and comparison.


If numerous examples are necessary to substantiate a specific point, an appendix may appear at the end of the article.


2. Citation guidelines: Chicago Notes-Bibliography

In Text:

Within the body of your text, footnotes are inserted as numbered notes that appear at the bottom of each page of your article.


Use Arabic numbers 1, 2, 3, not Roman ones—i, ii, iii.


For the first footnote, insert a numeral and the system will continue numbering in this manner. Do not use superscript font within the footnote entry.



List in the following order: First name, surname, title, (publication detail, date).


Footnote when first used: Oliver Sachs, Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain (New York: Knopf, 2007).


Short entry for subsequent notes: Sachs, Musicophilia.


References: (See examples below)

In addition to footnotes, your article will also have a list of references: a list of all of the sources you cited in your article, arranged in alphabetical order by surname of each author.


Use the heading: References.


Only list sources actually referred to in the text.


Bibliographic information (except source titles) should be provided in English, regardless of the language of publication.



To facilitate the alphabetic ordering, surnames are typed first in this list, followed by first names (if known) and initials, the title and (publisher, and lastly the date).


NB: Although full first names are used in the examples in this document, it is also acceptable to use authors’ initials only, as long as one system is used consistently.


The entries are additionally sorted by the work’s date of publication (oldest to newest).


Do not use a dash to replace author names.


If no author or editor, order alphabetically by title (corresponding with text citation).


A single-author entry precedes a multi-author entry beginning with the same surname.


 Successive entries by two+ authors, when the first author is the same, are alphabetised by co-authors’ surnames.



Use headline-style capitalisation in titles and subtitles of works and parts of works such as articles or chapters (i.e., Biology in the Modern World: Science for Life in South Africa). Capitalise significant words and proper nouns.


Use headline-style capitalisation for titles of journals and periodicals (i.e., Journal of Social Activism).


Titles of publications are typed in italics: Evangelism and the Growth of Pentecostalism in Africa.


Compound sources

Source within another source: Smit, R. “Where to Now?” In Climate Change in the Next Decade, edited by S.Y. Tovey and T. Rosti, 200–234, (Pretoria: Van Schaik, 2012).


Treat pamphlets, reports, brochures and freestanding publications (such as exhibition catalogues) as books. Give sufficient information to identify the document.


Electronic references (NB: The text reference must correspond with the alphabetical reference list)

Author’s surname, name and initials (if available); title of article/publication. website address (URL)


Petrovic, Karl, J.S. “A New Age for Libya.”Accessed November 2, 2016.


NASA. “The End of the Space Race.”Accessed November 2, 2016.


Manuscript or archival collections

In a note, the main element of a manuscript citation is usually a specific item (a letter, a memorandum, or whatever) and is thus cited first:


1. James Oglethorpe to the Trustees, 13 January 1733, Phillipps Collection of Egmont Manuscripts, 14200:13, University of Georgia Library.


2. Alvin Johnson, memorandum, 1937, file 36, Horace Kallen Papers, YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York.


3. Revere’s Waste and Memoranda Book (vol. 1, 1761–83; vol. 2, 1783–97), Revere Family Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.


In a bibliography, the main element is usually either the collection in which the specific item may be found, the author(s) of the items in the collection, or the depository for the collection. (Entries beginning with the name of the collection or the last name of the author—which sometimes overlap—tend to be easiest to locate in a bibliography.):


Egmont Manuscripts. Phillipps Collection. University of Georgia Library.


Kallen, Horace. Papers. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York.


Revere Family Papers. Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.


NB: Specific items are not included in a bibliography unless only one item from a collection is cited.



 Personal communications, letters, conversations, emails, interviews, recordings may be listed separately in the reference list.


Omit: Inc., Co. Publishing Co. etc. from the name of the publisher.



Examples: (For full list of examples see

1: Initial footnote

2: Subsequent abbreviated footnote

R: Reference



One author

1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

R: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Two or more authors

1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.

2. Ward and Burns, War, 59–61.

R: Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.


For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):

1. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s . . .

2. Barnes et al., Plastics . . .

Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author

1. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.

2. Lattimore, Iliad, 24.

R: Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author

1. Gabriel García Márquez, Love in the Time of Cholera, trans. Edith Grossman (London: Cape, 1988), 242–55.

2. García Márquez, Cholera, 33.

R: García Márquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape, 1988.

Chapter or other part of a book

1. John D. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.

2. Kelly, “Seeing Red,” 81–82.

R: Kelly, John D. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)

1. Quintus Tullius Cicero, “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship,” in Rome: Late Republic and Principate, ed. Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White, vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35.

2. Cicero, “Canvassing for the consulship,” 35.

R: Cicero, Quintus Tullius. “Handbook on canvassing for the consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

1. James Rieger, introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), xx–xxi.

2. Rieger, introduction, xxxiii.

R: Rieger, James. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL and include an access date. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

1. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), Kindle edition.

2. Austen, Pride and Prejudice.

R: Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle edition.


Journal articles

 Article in a print journal

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.

1. Joshua I. Weinstein, “The Market in Plato’s Republic,” Classical Philology 104, no.4 (2009): 440.

2. Weinstein, “Plato’s Republic,” 452–53.

R: Weinstein, Joshua I. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104, no. 4 (2009): 439–58.

Article in an online journal

Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. Do not put a full stop after the DOI—a DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL and include an access date.

1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411.

2. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

R: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50.


Other sources

Book review

1. David Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner,” review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan, New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review. Accessed November 2, 2016. .

2. Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner.”

R: Kamp, David. “Deconstructing Dinner.” Review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan. New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review. Accessed November 2, 2016.


Thesis or dissertation

1. Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008).

2. Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires.”

R: Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008.


Paper presented at a meeting or conference

1. Rachel Adelman, “‘Such Stuff as Dreams are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition” (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009).

2. Adelman, “Such Stuff as Dreams.”

R: Adelman, Rachel. “‘Such Stuff as Dreams are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009.



As AHR is an accredited academic journal, it needs to adhere to the minimum requirements of the Department of Higher Education and Training of South Africa. This means that mostly empirical peer reviewed research articles should be published, but a limited number of pages can contain book reviews or peer reviewed review articles. In exceptional cases one article per issue might address research issues per se. The decisions of the reviewers and the editors are final.



No more than two articles will be published about any specific research project in AHR. No articles will be published as part 1 and part 2. In every AHR issue, no person may author more than one sole authored or more than two co-authored articles.


Copyright of an article will be assigned to Unisa Press if the article is published. Copyright covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article in any medium.


Submitting any article to AHR implies that it presents original, unpublished work, and is not considered for publication elsewhere.


It remains the right of Unisa Press to submit any article for originality checking to determine its extent of non-original information.

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