Teacher Intervention Strategies on Reducing Youth Violent Behaviour in One Historically Disadvantaged School: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.25159/2708-9355/14037

Keywords:

learner-to-learner, school violence, strategies, teachers, youth behaviour violence

Abstract

Youth violence, particularly learner-to-learner violence in South African schools, has significantly impacted on teachers, leading to increased stress and burnout. Consequently, there is a pressing need to devise strategies to address school violence. This study aimed to examine teachers’ perspectives on a multi-disciplinary approach intervention strategy aimed at reducing youth violent behaviour, particularly in a chosen high school in the Vhembe District Municipality, Limpopo province, South Africa. The sample consisted of nine teachers and one school principal who participated in this study. Unstructured interviews were used to gather the data, and thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data. The key finding reveals the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach in fostering safer learning environments in a historically disadvantaged school. The study recommends collaboration between the Department of Basic Education and the National Youth Development Agency to develop a social and emotional learning programme. This social and emotional learning programme will help to equip learners to manage emotions effectively, particularly in conflict situations, thus mitigating the inclination towards physical violence.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Aluede, O. 2011. “Managing Bullying Problems in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Some Counselling Intervention for Implementation. The African Symposium.” Online Journal of the African Educational Research Network 11 (1): 138–144.

Alvarez M. E., L. Bye, R. Bryant, and M. Mumm. 2013. “School Social Workers and Educational Outcomes.” Children & Schools 35 (4): 235–243. https://doi.org/10.1093/cs/cdt019

Andreou, E. 2015. “School Violence Prevention: The Youth Development Perspective.” British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science 1 (4): 389–395. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJESBS/2015/13265

Anthonowicks, L. 2010. “Too Often in Silence: A Report on School-Based Violence in West and Central Africa.” UNICEF and Save the Children. http://www.unicef.org./wcaro/VAC Report. Accessed August 22, 2019.

Astor, R. A., W. J. Behre, J. M. Wallace, and K. A. Fravil. 1998. “School Social Workers and School Violence: Personal Safety, Training and Violence Programmes.” Journal of Social Work 43 (3): 223–232. https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/43.3.223

Bailey, A. 2012. “The Jamaican Adolescents’ Perspectives on Violence and Its Effects.” West Indian Medical Journal 60 (2): 65–81. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21942121/

Bandura, A. 1969. Principles of Behavior Modification. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Bandura, A. 1976. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Burton, P., and L. Leoschut. 2013. “School Violence in South Africa: Results of the 2012 National School Violence Study.” Cape Town: Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention. https://ci.uct.ac.za/projects-reporters-resources-violence-against-children-violence-schools-violence-schools-academic-0

Burgess, R. L., and R. L. Akers. 1966. “A Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory of Criminal Behavior.” Social Problems 14: 128–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/ sp.1966.14.2.03a00020

Bucur, A., S. Ursoniu, C. Caraion-Buzdea, V. Ciobanu, S. Florescu, and C. Vladescu. 2020. “Aggressive Behaviors among 15–16-Year-Old Romanian High School Students: Results from Two Consecutive Surveys Related to Alcohol and Other Drug Use at the European Level.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (10): 3670. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103670

Chitiyo, M., G. Chitiyo, J. Chitiyo, V. Oyedele, R. Makoni, D. Fonnah, and L. Chipangure. 2014. “Understanding the Causes and Management of Problem Behaviour in Zimbabwean Schools: Teacher Perceptions.” International Journal of Inclusive Education 18 (11): 1091–1106. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2013.875068

Clarke, V., and V. Braun. 2014. “Thematic Analysis.” In Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology, edited by T. Teo, 1947–1952. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_311

Çetin, Z., M. Ö. Danacý, and A. Kuzu. 2020. “The Effect of Psychological Violence on Preschool Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Performance.” South African Journal of Education 40 (1): 1–11. https://dx.doi.org/10.15700/saje.v40n1a1738

Davids, N., and P. Waghid. 2016. “Responding to Violence in Post-Apartheid Schooling: On School Leadership as Mutual Engagement.” Journal of Education as Change 20 (1): 28–42. https://doi.org/10.17159/1947-9417/2016/557

Debusho, T. K. 2017. “Safety in Semi-Urban Schools of Limpopo Province: A Case of Mankweng Circuit.” MEd thesis, University of Limpopo. http://hdl.handle.net/10386/1963

Devlin, D., and D. C. Gottfredson. 2020. “The Roles of Police Officers in Schools: Effects on the Recording and Reporting of Crime.” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 16 (2): 208–223. https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204016680405

De Vos, A. S., A. Strydom, C. B. Fouche, and C. S. L. Delport. 2011. Research at Grass Roots: For the Social Sciences & Human Service Professions. 3rd ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik.

De Wet, C. 2016. “The Cape Times’ Portrayal of School Violence.” South African Journal of Education 36 (2): 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.15700/saje.v36n2a1231

De Wet, N., O. Somefun, and N. Rambau. 2018. “Perceptions of Community Safety and Social Activity Participation among Youth in South Africa.’ PLoS ONE 13 (5): e0197549. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197549

Dzivhani, M. D. 2000. “The Role of Discipline in School and Classroom Management: A Case Study.” MEd thesis, University of South Africa. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/43175949.pdf

Devries, K. M., C. H. Ward, D. Naker, J. Parkes, C. Bonell, A. Bhatia, C. Tanton, E. Walakira, L. A. Mudekunye, L. P. Alampay, and R. T. Naved. 2022. “School Violence: Where Are the Interventions?” The Lancet. Child & Adolescent Health 6 (1): 5–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00329-1

Dolev-Cohen, M., and I. Levkovich. 2020. “Teachers’ Responses to Face-to-Face and Cyberbullying of Colleagues by Others in Israeli Schools.” International Journal of School & Educational Psychology 9 (10): S153–S165. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683603.2020.1772159

Ettekal, A. V., and J. L. Mahoney. 2017. “Ecological Systems Theory.” In The SAGE Encyclopaedia of Out-of-School Learning. SAGE.

Espelage, D. L., C. A. Rose, and J. R. Polanin. 2015. “Social-Emotional Learning Program to Reduce Bullying, Fighting, and Victimisation among Middle School Students with Disabilities.” Remedial and Special Education 36 (5): 299–311. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932514564564

Fraga, S., E. Ramos, S. Dias, and H. Barros. 2011. “Physical Fighting among School-Going Portuguese Adolescents: Social and Behavioural Correlates.” Preventive Medicine 52 (5): 401–404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.02.015

Finigan-Carr, N. M., A. Gielen, D. L. Haynie, and T. L. Cheng. 2016. “Youth Violence: How Gender Matters in Aggression among Urban Early Adolescents.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 31 (19): 3257–3281. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515584348

Heimpel, N. F., X. Qian, and W. Song. 2018. “Parenting and Child Self-Regulation in Chinese Families: A Multi-Informant Study.” Journal of School Violence 18 (2): 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2018.1512415

Grobler, G. W. 2018. “Narratives of the Teachers’ Experiences of School Violence and Ethics of Care.” MEd thesis, Stellenbosch University. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/188224038.pdf

Gundogdu, I., and F. A. Yavuzer. 2012. A Framework for School Violence Prevention for Intervention. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield.

Institute of Education. 2014. Managing Classroom Behaviour. United Kingdom: Association of Teachers and Lecturers. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258519263_Managing_Classroom_Behaviour

Jacobsz, F.-A. 2015. “Addressing Negative Classroom Behaviour in Selected Schools in Francis Town, Botswana.” MEd thesis, University of South Africa. https://www.academia.edu/download/77477148/dissertation_jacobsz_fa.pdf

Jordaan, N. 2019. “Pupil Left with Jaw Injury after Another Gauteng Schoolyard Fight.” Time Live, March 11, 2019. https://www.timeslive.co.za/news/south-africa/2019-03-11-pupil-left-with-jaw-injury-after-another-gauteng-schoolyard-fight/

Kheswa, J. G. 2015. “Exploring the Impact of Ineffective Communication on Teachers’ Teaching Performance at Primary Schools.” International Journal of Educational Science 11 (3): 330–340. https://doi.org/10.1080/09751122.2015.11890405

Langman, P. 2011. Why Kids Kill: Inside the Minds of School Shooters. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Limpopo Chronicle. 2024.” Limpopo Learner Dies in Fatal Stabbing Incident.” https://limpopochronicle.co.za/2024/03/01/limpopo-learner-dies-in-fatal-stabbing-incident/

Lesneskie, E., and S. Block. 2017. “School Violence: The Role of Parental and Community Involvement.” Journal of School Violence 16 (4): 426–444. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2016.1168744

Mabasa, L. 2014. “Implementation of the Safe Schools’ Programme in the Secondary Schools of the Limpopo Province in South Africa.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 5 (27): 752–759. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n27p752

Magidi, M. D. 2014. “Experiences of Gangsterism by Non-Gang Affiliated High School Learners in Hanover Park–Western Cape.” MA(SW) thesis, University of the Western Cape. http://hdl.handle.net/11394/4071

Mail & Guardian. 2013. “Building Resilience in Communities Prevents Violence.” Mail & Guardian, May 3, 2013. https://mg.co.za/article/2013-05-03-00-building-resilience-in-communities-prevents-violence

Maseko, S. 2013. “Punishment or Treatment in Managing Learner Violence in South African Public Township Schools.” International Journal of Educational Sciences 5 (2): 109–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/09751122.2013.11890067

Makhasane, S. D., and V. Chikoko. 2016. “Corporal Punishment Contestations, Paradoxes and Implications for School Leadership: A Case Study of Two South African High Schools.” South African Journal of Education 36 (4): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.15700/saje.v36n4a1316

Mason, S. A. 2017. “Qualitative versus Quantitative Approaches.” In Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders, edited by F. R. Volkmar. New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1698-3_167.

Mbalo Brief. 2023. “The Missing Piece of Puzzle.” Accessed March 21, 2024. https://www.statssa.gov.za/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Mbalo-Brief-Final-Copy.pdf

Merrill, K. G., L. Knight, S. Namy, E. Allen, D. Naker, and K. M. Devries. 2018. “Effects of a Violence Prevention Intervention in Schools and Surrounding Communities: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster Randomised-Controlled Trial in Uganda.” Child Abuse & Neglect 84 (2): 182–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.06.007

Mlambo, S. 2023. “Krugersdorp Pupil in Violent Attack of Schoolgirl Has Been Suspended – Gauteng Education.” IOL, February 1, 2023. https://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/gauteng/krugersdorp-pupil-in-violent-attack-of-school-girl-has-been-suspended-gauteng-education-9d92c1fb-97b0-4641-8849-74aca131cddd

Mngomezulu, N. M. 2020. “The Role of Traditional Leaders in the Maintenance of Learners’ Discipline in Rural Schools: A Multi-Site Case Study.” PhD diss., University of KwaZulu-Natal. https://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/handle/10413/19657

Morin, A. 2014. “How Team-Building Activities Benefit Teens.” Accessed August 21, 2019. https://www.understood.org/en/friends-feelings/empowering-your-child/self-esteem/howteam-building-activities-benefit-teens

Mncube, V., C. Harber, and P. Du Plessis. 2011. “Effective School Governing Bodies: Parental Involvement.” Acta Academia 43 (3): 210–242. https://journals.ufs.ac.za/index.php/aa/article/view/1326

Mncube, V. S. 2014. “Preventing Violence in South African Schools: Control and Punish or More Effective School Management?” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 5 (3): 416–421. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n3p416

Mthiyane, S. E. 2013. “Dynamics of School-Based Violence Exploring School Governing Bodies in Addressing Violence in Post-Conflict South African Schools.” DPhil diss., University of KwaZulu-Natal. https://www.academia.edu/77631767/Dynamics_of_school_based_violence_exploring_school_governing_bodies_in_addressing_violence_in_post_conflict_South_African_school

Msindisi, F. 2019. “How to Tackle School Violence.” City Press, June 13, 2019. https://city-press.news24.com/News/how-to-tackle-school-violence-20190613

National Institute of Justice. 2022. “The Causes and Consequences of School Violence: A Review.” Accessed March 2, 2024. https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/302346.pdf

Netshitangani, T. 2014. “Causes of School-Based Violence in South African Public Schools: Application of Normalisation Theory to Understand the Phenomenon through Educator’s Perspectives.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 5 (20): 1394–1402. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n20p1394

Netshitangani, T. 2019. “Voices of Teachers on School Violence and Gender in South African Urban Public Schools.” Journal of Reviews on Global Economics 8: 21–29. https://ideas.repec.org/a/lif/jrgelg/v8y2019p21-29.html

News24. 2015. “Shocking Video: Pupil Assaulted in Class as Teacher Turns a Blind Eye.” News24, June 17, 2015. https://www.news24.com/you/archive/shocking-video-pupil-assaulted-in-class-as-teacher-turns-a-blind-eye-20170728

News24. 2019. “Mondeor High School Pupil Stabbed to Death near School.” News24, March 13, 2019. https://www.news24.com/news24/breaking-mondeor-high-school-pupil-stabbed-to-death-near-school-20190313

Ngidi, L. Z. 2018. “Reducing School Violence: A Peace Education Project amongst Stakeholders in Umlazi.” DPhil diss., Durban University of Technology. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.51415/10321/3297

Okeke, C. I. 2014. “Effective Home-School Partnership: Some Strategies to Help Strengthen Parental Involvement.” South African Journal of Education 34 (3): 1–10. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1135521

Radebe F., and M. Kyobe. 2021. “The Response of Social Crime Prevention Police to Cyberbullying Perpetrated by Youth in Rural Areas of South Africa.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18 (24): 13421. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413421

Ramorola, M. Z., and J. M. Taole. 2014. “The Links between School Violence and Drug Usage in Schools: External or Internal Factor.” Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology 5 (1): 11–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/09766634.2014.11885604

Republic of South Africa. 2000. South African Council for Educators Act, Act No. 31 of 2000. Pretoria: Government Printer.

Rogers, C. R., H. C. Lyon, and R. Tausch. 2014. On Becoming an Effective Teacher: Person-Centred Teaching, Philosophy, and Dialogues with Carl R. Rogers and Harold Lyon. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203725672

Rogers, V. 2016. “An Independent Evaluation of Youth Work in Schools in Wales: From the Perspective of Teaching Professionals.” Accessed October 11, 2020. https://www.gov.wales/sites/default/files/publications/2018-02/an-independent-evaluation-of-youth-work-in-schools-in-wales-vanessa-rogers-may-2016.pdf

Shange, N. 2019. “Criminal Records ‘Would Be Good for Girls Who Beat Fellow Pupil.” Time Live, March 11, 2019. https://www.timeslive.co.za/news/south-africa/2019-03-11-gauteng-education-mec-wants-girls-who-beat-pupil-to-face-the-law/

Singh, G. D., and T. Steyn. 2014. “The Impact of Learner Violence in Rural South African Schools.” Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology 5 (1): 81–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/09766634.2014.11885612

Singo, N. E. 2017. “Teachers’ Perceptions on Alternatives to Corporal Punishment in Vhembe District.” MEd dissertation, Central University of Technology. http://hdl.handle.net/11462/1937

Sutherland, E. H. 1947. Principles of Criminology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Temitayo, O., M. A. Nayaya, and A. A. Lukman. 2013. “Management of Disciplinary Problems in Secondary Schools: Jalingo Metropolis in Focus.” Global Journal of Human Social Science, Linguistics and Education 13 (14): 7–19. https://globaljournals.org/GJHSS_Volume13/2-Management-of-Disciplinary-Problems.pdf

Theron, L. C., and P. Engelbrecht. 2012. “Caring Teachers: Teacher–Youth Transactions to Promote Resilience.” In The Social Ecology of Resilience: Culture, Context, Resources and Meaning, edited by M. Ungar. New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-0586-3_21

Tshehla, B. 2016. “Traditional Leaders’ Role in Justice and Crime Prevention.” South African Crime Quarterly 3 (11): 15–20. https://doi.org/10.17159/2413-3108/2005/v0i11a1023

Tugli, A. K. 2015. “Investigating Violence-Related Behaviors among Learners in Rural Schools in South Africa.” International Journal of Educational Sciences 10 (1): 103–109. https://doi.org/10.1080/09751122.2015.11890346

UK Home Office. 2013. “Addressing Youth Violence and Drug Practiced Advice for Schools and Colleges.” London: Home Office. https://www.drugsandalcohol.ie/20386/1/Advice_to_Schools_and_Colleges_on_Gangs.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. “Global Guidance on Addressing Social-Related Gender-Based Violence.” Accessed June 3, 2020. https://www.unicef.org/documents/global-guidance-addressing-school-related-gender-based-violence

Western Cape Government. 2021. “School-Based Learner-on-Learner Violence Assessing Learners’ Experiences of Violence in Ten Schools in the Cape Metropole.” Accessed March 21, 2024. https://wcedonline.westerncape.gov.za/documents/T2P/T2P-docs/Needs%20assessement%20Policy%20brief%20FINAL_VPI_Schools%20Project%202021.pdf

World Health Organization. 2019. “School-Based Violence Prevention: A Practical Handbook.” Accessed March 4, 2024. https://www.unicef.org/media/58081/file/UNICEF-WHO-UNESCO-handbook-school-based-violence.pdf

Xaba, M. I. 2014. “An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Implementation of Safety and Security Measures at Public Schools in South Africa.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Science 1 (27): 490–499. https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/view/5106/4929

Yavuzer, Y., and R. Gündoğdu. 2019. “Teachers’ Responsibilities in Preventing School Violence: A Case Study in Turkey.” Educational Research and Reviews 7 (17): 362–371. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR11.261

Yoon, J. S., and E. Barton. 2008. “The Role of Teachers in School Violence and Bullying Prevention.” In School Violence and Primary Prevention, edited by T. W. Miller. New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-77119-9_13

Zee, M., and H. M. Y. Koomen. 2016. “Teacher Self-Efficacy and Its Effects on Classroom Processes, Student Academic Adjustment, and Teacher Well-Being: A Synthesis of 40 Years of Research.” Review of Educational Research 86 (4): 981–1015. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654315626801

ZimoJa Lezinto. 2022. “Gangsterism Rocks Limpopo Schools.” Accessed March 4, 2024. https://www.zimoja.co.za/articles/gangsterism-rocks-limpopo-schools

Downloads

Published

2024-06-26

How to Cite

Chauke, Thulani Andrew. 2024. “Teacher Intervention Strategies on Reducing Youth Violent Behaviour in One Historically Disadvantaged School: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach”. Southern African Journal of Social Work and Social Development 36 (2):22 pages. https://doi.org/10.25159/2708-9355/14037.

Issue

Section

Articles
Received 2023-07-04
Accepted 2024-04-12
Published 2024-06-26