Mapping the Perception of Urban Safety, Space and Livelihood of Girl Street Children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia




girl street children, asset mapping, participatory research, space, livelihood, Yogyakarta


Street children remain a social phenomenon in many low- and middle-income countries in which they experience alienation, discrimination, and social and spatial exclusion. The aim of this study was to identify and understand how girl street children perceive safety, space, and their livelihood on the urban streets of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, and to identify the multilevel components and processes that can contribute to improving the effectiveness of interventions for this group. A mixed-methods design was applied using a critical community-based participatory research and asset-mapping approach. Both quantitative descriptive statistics and qualitative thematic content analysis were used. The results highlight that the girl street children are subjected to various forms of hegemony linked to power, space and place, gender, and socio-economic marginalisation. Factors that contribute to their safety and survival include a sense of place, belonging and connectedness, and access to various tangible and intangible assets in their created spaces. We recommend further exploration of the mobilisation of assets to transform the quality of life and livelihood and to enhance the safety of the girl street children.

Author Biographies

Elli Nur Hayati, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Faculty of Psychology

Dessy Pranungsari, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Faculty of Psychology

Ahmad Muhammad Diponegoro, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Faculty of Psychology

Ghouwa Ismail, University of South Africa

Institute for Social and Health Sciences

Naiema Taliep, University of South Africa

Institute for Social and Health Sciences


Adioetomo, P. S. M., Posselt, H., & Utomo, A. (2014). Youth in Indonesia. UNFPA Indonesia Monograph Series: No. 2.

Aisenberg, E., & Herrenkohl, T. (2008). Community violence in context: Risk and resilience in children and families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(3), 296–315. DOI:

Amani. (2017). Why are there street kids? Retrieved from

Ansell, N. (2005). Children, youth and development. Routledge. DOI:

Aptekar, L., & Heinonen, P. (2003). Methodological implications of contextual diversity in research on street children. Children Youth and Environments, 13(1): 202–219. DOI:

Awad, S. (2002). A comparative study of personality traits in juvenile delinquent and non-juvenile delinquent females students in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Conference of the Psychological Counselling Center, Ain Shams University.

Baum, F., MacDougall, C., and Smith, D. (2006). Participatory action research. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(10), 854–857. DOI:

Beazley, H. (2002). ’Vagrants wearing make-up’: Negotiating spaces on the streets of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Urban Studies, 39(9), 1665–1683. DOI:

Beazley, H. (2003a). The construction and protection of individual and collective identities by street children and youth in Indonesia. Children, Youth and Environments, 13(1), 105–133. DOI:

Beazley, H. (2003b). Voices from the margins: Street children’s subcultures in Indonesia. Children’s Geographies, 1(2), 181–200. DOI:

Bhattacharjee, S., Kumar, R., Agrawal, A., O’Grady K. E., & Jones, H. E. (2016). Risk factors for substance use among street children entering treatment in India. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 38(5), 419–423. DOI:

Boakye-Danquah, P. (2021, April 14). Key indicators for streetism and how to solve them. Retrieved from

Bohman, J. (2016). From self-legislation to self-determination: Democracy and the new circumstances of global politics. Critical Horizons, 17(1), 123–134. DOI:

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101. DOI:

Cappa, C., & Hereward, M. (2019). Fulfilling the right of street children to be counted. UNICEF. Retrieved from

Consortium for Street Children. (2019). About street children: Street children are amongst the most vulnerable children on the planet. Retrieved from

Corbett, J., & Lydon, M. (2014). Community-based mapping: A tool for transformation. In T. Dawson, C. Etmanski & B. L. Hall (Eds). Learning and teaching community-based research: Linking pedagogy to practice, 113–134. University of Toronto Press. DOI:

Cutts, T., Olivier, J., Lazarus, S., Cochrane, J. R., & Hendricks, C. (2016). Original contributions community asset mapping for violence prevention: A comparison of views in Erijaville, South Africa and Memphis. African Safety Promotion Journal, 14(1), 1–25.

De Brito, A. (2014). Street children and the implementation of child protection regulations: Comparing Brazil and South Africa (Master’s thesis). Linneaus University.

De Moura, S. L. (2002). The social construction of street children: Configuration and implications. British Journal of Social Work, 32(3), 353–367. DOI:

Duckworth, A. L., Steen, T. A., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Positive psychology in clinical practice. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 629–651. DOI:

Ehrensaft, M. K., Knous-Westfall, H., & Cohen, P. (2017). Long-term influence of intimate partner violence and parenting practices on offspring trauma symptoms. Psychology of Violence, 7(2), 296–305. DOI:

Endris, S., & Sitota, G. (2019). Causes and consequences of streetism among street children in Harar City, Ethiopia. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 7(2), 94–99. DOI:

Ennew, J., & Swart-Kruger, J. (2003). Introduction: Homes, places and spaces in the construction of street children and street youth. Children, Youth and Environment, 13(1), 81–104. DOI:

Fang, M. L., Woolrych, R., Sixsmith, J., Canham, S., Battersby, L., & Sixsmith, A. (2016). Place-making with older persons: Establishing sense-of-place through participatory community mapping workshops. Social Science and Medicine, 168, 223–229. DOI:

Friberg, A., & Martinsson, V. (2017). Problems and solutions when dealing with street children: A qualitative study based on experiences from social workers’ in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Jönköping University. Retrieved from

Full Frame Initiative. (2013). Five domains of wellbeing: Social connectedness. Retrieved from

Gaventa, J. (2006). Finding the spaces for change: A power analysis. IDS Bulletin, 37(6), 23–33. DOI:

Geographical Association. (2018). What is meant by the terms “place” and “space”? Retrieved from

Governor of Special Region of Yogyakarta. (2014). Regional regulation (PERDA) on handling homeless and beggars. Retrieved from

Hoffmann, E. V., Duarte, C. S., Fossaluza, V., Milani, A. C. C., Maciel, M. R., Mello, M. F., & Mello, A. F. (2017). Mental health of children who work on the streets in Brazil after enrollment in a psychosocial program. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(1), 55–63. DOI:

Killian, B. (2004). Risk and resilience. In R. Pharoah (ed.), A generation at risk? HIV/AIDS, vulnerable children and security in Southern Africa, 33–63. Institute for Security Studies Monographs.

Kissling, E. A. (1991). Street harassment: The language of sexual terrorism. Discourse and Society, 2(4), 451–460. DOI:

Kopoka. (2000). The problem of street children in Africa. International conference on street children and street children’s health in East Africa, 1–24 April.

Kramer, S., Amos, T., Lazarus, S., & Seedat, M. (2012). The philosophical assumptions, utility and challenges of asset mapping approaches to community engagement. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 22(4), 537–546. DOI:

Kretzmann, J. P., & McKnight, J. L. (1993). Building communities from inside out: A path toward finding and mobilising community assets. Chicago: Acta.

Lazarus, S., Duran, B., Caldwell, L., & Bulbulia, S. (2012). Public health research and action: Reflections on challenges and possibilities of community-based participatory research. Public Health, 309–324. DOI:

Lazarus, S., Taliep, N., Bulbulia, A., Phillips, S., Seedat, M., & Phillips, S. (2012). Community-based participatory research a low-income setting: An illustrative case of study. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 22(4), 509–516. DOI:

Lazarus, S., Taliep, N., & Naidoo, A. V. (2017). Community asset mapping as a critical participatory research method. In M. Seedat, S. Suffla & D. J. Christie (Eds), Emancipatory and participatory methodologies in peace, critical, and community psychology, 45–59. Cham: Springer. DOI:

Malindi, M. J. (2009). The antecedents of resilience among street children (PhD dissertation), North-West University.

Malindi, M. J. (2014). Swimming upstream in the midst of adversity: Exploring resilience-enablers among street children. Journal of Social Sciences, 39(3), 265–274. DOI:

Massey, D. (1993). Power geometry and progressive sense of place. In J. Bird, B. Curtis, T. Putnam, G. Robertson and L. Tickner (Eds), Mapping the futures: Local cultures, global change, 59–69. Routledge.

Massey, D. (2009). Concepts of space and power in theory and in political practice. Documents d’anàlisi geogràfica, 55, 15–26.

Methula, D. W. (2014). Engaging in the struggle for economic justice in the streets of the City of Tshwane. Missionalia: Southern African Journal of Mission Studies, 42(1–2), 107–119. DOI:

Miraftab, F. (2004). Invited and invented spaces of participation: Neoliberal citizenship and feminists’ expanded notion of politics. Wagadu, 1, 1–7.

Moolla, A., Myburgh, C., & Poggenpoel, M. (2014). Street children’ s experiences of aggression during interaction with police. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 18(4), 597–602. DOI:

Napikoski, L. (2020, February 6). Feminist literacy criticism. ThoughtCo. Retrieved from

Oguto, M. (2022, May 13). Under the bridge: The invisible lives of street children. Young African Magazine. Mandela Rhodes Foundation.

Pabayo, R., Grinshteyn, E., Avila, O., Azrael, D., & Molnar, B. E. (2020). Relation between neighborhood socio-economic characteristics and social cohesion, social control, and collective efficacy: Findings from the Boston neighborhood study. SSM – Population Health, 10: 100552. DOI:

Pranungsari, D., Koentjoro, A., & Kushartati, S. (2014). Psychoeducational of healthy dating to reduce the risk of sexual violence in female street children. Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology, 3(3), 126–140.

Road, W. (2006). Save the children annual report 2005. Retrieved from

Sauvé, S. (2003). Changing paradigms for working with street youth: The experience of street kids international. Children, Youth and Environments, 13(1), 314–333. DOI:

Scanlon, T. J., Tomkins, A., Lynch, M. A., & Scanlon, F. (1998). Street children in Latin America. BMJ, 316(7144), 1596–1600. DOI:

Septirina, S. N., Takeo, O., & Satoru, K. (2016). Conservation of historical architecture in Malioboro street, Yogyakarta city, Indonesia. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 225, 259–269. DOI:

Shatkin, G. (2006). Global cities of the south: Emerging perspectives on growth and inequality. Cities, 24(1), 1–15. DOI:

Smith, R. M., Parrott, D. J., Swartout, K. M., & Tharp, A. T. (2015). Deconstructing hegemonic masculinity: The roles of antifemininity, subordination to women, and sexual dominance in men’s perpetration of sexual aggression. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 16(2), 160–169. DOI:

Social Service. (2020). Anak Jalanan. Retrieved from

Special Region of Yogyakarta (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta) Social Service. (2013). Definisi dan kriteria PMKS. Retrieved from

Stephenson, S. (2001). The abandoned children of Russia – From “privileged class” to ‘underclass’. In S. Webber & I. Liikanen (Eds), Education and civic culture in post-communist countries, 187–203. Springer/Palgrave Macmillan.

Stoecklin, D. (2017). The general comment on children in street situations: Insights into the institutionalisation of children’s rights. International Journal of Children’s Rights, 25, 817–869. DOI:

Subhansyah, A., Yusito, F., & Trisnadi, W. (2005). Anak Jalanan di Indonesia: Deskripsi Persoalan dan Penanganan. YLPS Humana.

Suyanto, B. (2010). Masalah sosial anak. Kencana.

Taliep, N., Lazarus, S., Cochrane, J., Olivier, J., Bulbulia, S., Seedat, M., Swanepoel, H., & James, A. (2020). Community asset mapping as a strategy for developing an interpersonal violence prevention program in South Africa. Action Research. DOI:

Taliep, N., Bulbulia, S., Lazarus, S., Seedat, M., & Building Bridges Team. (2022). Community based participatory research (CBPR) as an emancipatory modality promoting social transformation empowerment, agency and activism. In C. Walker, S. Zlotowitz & A. Zoli (Eds), The Palgrave handbook of innovative community and clinical psychologies, 497–519. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI:

Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Basil Blackwell.

United Nations. (2022). Youth: Who are the youth. United Nations. Retrieved from,of%2015%20and%2024%20years

United Nations Children’s Fund. (2012). The state of the world’s children 2012: Excluded and invisible. United Nations Publications Report No.: 9280639161. DOI:

Van Daalen, E., Hanson, K., & Nieuwenhuys, O. (2016). Children’s rights as living rights: The case of street children and a new law in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. International Journal of Children’s Rights, 24(4), 803–25. DOI:

Wicaksono, P. (2015). Malioboro air pollution to increase during holiday season. Retrieved from

Widyawati, K., Kepirianto, C., & Chandra, H. (2005). Kekerasan Terhadap Anak Jalanan (Studi Kasus Kekerasan Terhadap Anak Jalanan di Semarang). Universitas Diponegoro.

Wynn, T. A., Taylor-Jones, M. M., Johnson, R. E., Bostick, P.B., & Fouad, M. (2011). Using community-based participatory approaches to mobilize communities for policy change. Family and Community Health, 34(5), 102–114. DOI:



How to Cite

Hayati, E. N., Pranungsari, D., Diponegoro, A. M., Ismail, G., & Taliep, N. (2023). Mapping the Perception of Urban Safety, Space and Livelihood of Girl Street Children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Social and Health Sciences, 21(1 and 2), 26 pages.