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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is 1,5-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • This is a new submission, not a revised version of a manuscript already under review within SAJS.

Author Guidelines

Instructions to Authors: Southern African Journal of Security

Please adhere strictly to these instructions to facilitate the publication process of articles.



If you are not already registered please register on the SAJS website:


Please see the User Guide for further information:

Registering with the Journal


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Viewing and Changing your Profile



Please refer to the Users' Guide for further details:

Submitting an Article


Because SAJS is a multi-disciplinary journal that will contain articles both of a law and a non-law nature, a hybrid house style with regard to referencing must be followed. In the first instance, the Chicago manual of style (author-date system) of in-text referencing should be adhered to and where any law-specific references or elucidations are required in notes, they should take the form of footnotes, not endnotes. Footnotes should not be longer than 12 lines of text; anything longer will be considered for conversion to an annexure to the article. Law-specific references could include case citations and other precedents, author commentary or elucidation, and references to legislation of various kinds. In footnotes, primary sources (eg case law, legislation) take precedence over secondary sources (eg journal articles and other published texts). Where necessary, a hybrid list of references should be subdivided into (a) published works, including official reports and unpublished theses, (b) case citations and (c) legislation, with appropriate sub-headings.



This guide endeavours to achieve a standardised typographical style and consistent language choices. The main objective is to make it easier for authors, editors, copyeditors, layout editors and all those who publish to know what choices to make in the myriad of existing options. Unisa Press uses the Chicago Manual of Style (Citation Quick Guide).


The style guide focuses on two major aspects:

1) Guidelines for technical preparation; 2) Citation guidelines.


  1. Guidelines for Technical Preparation of Manuscript


Submit manuscripts electronically—MSWord file.

All graphic material has to be positioned at the correct place in the text and should be of a good quality. Do not add supplementary files with graphic content.

Manuscripts must be presented as: A4 pages; normal margins; 12pt Times Roman; 1.5 line spacing.

Proofing language must be set as UK English (colour—not color; travelled—not traveled; organise; organisation; organising—not -ize).

Do not type double spaces anywhere; not between words, at the end of sentences or after colons.

Type hard spaces (shift + control + space bar) when phrases are preferred to be presented as a unit, e.g.10_000; Vol. 1 (2):_22?21.

Articles should be between 6000 and 8000 words and may not exceed 8000 words from the first word in the title to the last word in the list of references.

Make sure you follow the guidelines for ensuring a blind peer review.

Then present an indented abstract of not more than 200 words. Abstracts should not contain any footnotes or citations. Do not type the abstract in italics.

Below the abstract, please provide 4–10 keywords for indexing (only proper nouns in capitals).

Authors should include their affiliation or ORCiD below their name, after the title of the article.

No numbers should be used in headings or in lists


Please note the format and order of information required for the presentation of book reviews:


Oxford Dictionary of Journalism <Book title in italics>

Tony Harcup <Book author name(s) and surname>

Oxford University Press. 2014. xiv + pp. 368 <Publisher, date and number of pages>

ISBN: 978-0-0000000-1 <ISBN>

Reviewed by Rod Amner <Reviewer details>

Department of Languages <Affiliation: Department>

University of Limpopo (Turfloop), South Africa <Affiliation: Institution> <email address>



Do not use the ampersand (&) anywhere in the text or citations; use “and” instead.

In text, only sparingly emphasise words by using italics. Italicisation should otherwise be reserved for book titles and words from a language other than that of the text.

Italicised words/phrases in another language are glossed by an equivalent word/phrase in the language of the text in single inverted commas placed in brackets, e.g. …indoda (“a man”). Words well-known in South African English are set as roman, for example, lobola, ubuntu, indaba.

Words/terms that need to be singled out as being “borrowed” from another author/source may be placed in double inverted commas.

Titles of publications must be in headline style (significant words are capitalised) and in italics when typed in the text. Titles of articles are placed between “double inverted commas.” Also see citation guidelines for examples.



Acknowledgements appear at the end of the article, should be brief, and recognise sources of financial and logistical support and permission to reproduce materials from other sources. Save a copy of documentation granting such permission. Adherence to copyright rules remains each author’s sole responsibility.



Footnotes with references in Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3—do not use i, ii, iii) are allowed on condition that these are limited to essential notes that enhance the content without impeding the fluent reading of the article.

Footnotes are typed in 10pt. font and single spacing; hanging indent.

Endnotes are not allowed.

Footnotes do not replace the alphabetical list of references at the end of the text. References in notes are regarded as text references and not bibliographic information.



When quoting from a source, use “double inverted commas.”

To quote within a quote, use ‘single inverted commas.’

When quoting more than five lines, indent. Do not print indented text in italics and do not use quotation marks. A citation after the indented quote follows after a full stop, e.g.

According to the report the council will discuss the matter at the next council meeting to be held on 5 January 2017. (Smit 2002, 1)

When quoting within an indented quotation, use “double inverted commas.”

Final full stops and commas are placed inside the quotation marks.

Colons and semicolons are placed outside of quotation marks.

Question and exclamation marks are only placed inside quotation marks if they form part of the quoted material.


Do you know if she is “accredited”?

He asked: “Are you accredited?”

When adding notes to a quote or changing a quotation, use square brackets, e.g. [own translation/emphasis]/[t]oday.



In text, numbers one to nine are in words; numbers 10 and above are in digits.

At the start of a sentence all numbers are in words.

In brackets all numbers are in digits, as for numbers of tables, figures and chapters.

When in text, percentages (below 10) are in words—seven per cent; above 10 are digits—22 per cent/13.5 per cent.

Decimals—7.5 per cent—are always in digits (also in text).

Use the % sign in brackets and per cent in text.



Use Mathtype for display and inline equations, but not for single variables. Single variables should be inserted into the text as Unicode characters.



Abbreviations that begin and end on the same letter as the word, do not get a full stop (Mr/Dr/Eds) but Ed.

Academic degrees: (Preferably without any punctuation) BA; DPhil; MSc



Use the ellipsis when indicating that text has been left out in the middle of a quoted sentence—preferably not at the start or end of the sentence. It is a given that text has been left out preceding and following your quote.

Insert spaces before and after the ellipse.

Use only three full stops for an ellipse (A full stop is added before an ellipsis to indicate the omission of the end of a sentence, unless the sentence is deliberately incomplete. Similarly, a full stop at the end of a sentence in the original is retained before an ellipsis indicating the omission of material immediately following the full stop.)


In May 1862, two new missionaries, Endeman and Albert Nachtigal, joined Grützner and Merensky. … It was decided that Endeman and Grützner continue working. … The latter two eventually established the mission station Botshabelo … which later would play an important role in the Ba-Kopa history.



The unspaced em-dash (—) is used (Alt 0151).

An unspaced en-dash (–), NOT A HYPHEN (-) is used to indicate ranges (e.g. of numbers or page numbers: 15–21).



One initial: Steyn, P. 2009.

Multiple initials: Steyn, P. R. G. 2009. (spaces between initials)



Give the full name when first mentioned (with acronym in brackets), thereafter use the acronym uniformly and consistently: Unisa; CSIR; HSRC; Sabinet/SABINET


et al.

et al. (not italics) Never use in the reference list.

When citing a text with four+ authors, use only the first author’s name followed by et al. in text, but list all authors in the reference list.


Tables and Figures

Table headings appear above the tables and are numbered.

E.g. Table 1: Our Table

Figure captions appear below the figures and are numbered.

Captions should include, in the following order:

Figure 1 Artist, title (date). Medium/support, metric dimensions. Name of collection, city of collection, other collection information such as “gift of …”, accession number (copyright or credit-line information in parentheses).

Credit lines should include all elements specified in the letter of permission from the rights holder, institution and/or photographer:

Figure 1: Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (ca. 1482). Tempera on panel, 203 x 315 cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence (photograph provided by Scala / Art Resource, New York).

Figure 2: Roman sarcophagus, Death of Meleager (3rd century CE). Detail. Musée du Louvre, Paris (photograph © James Smith, Rome).

Figure 3: Alfred Stieglitz, Equivalent (1925-27). Gelatin silver print, 11.7 x 9.2 cm. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, anonymous gift (© 2009 Estate of Alfred Stieglitz / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York).

If using a scan from e.g. a catalogue, this must be indicated by means of an exact reference: Figure 4: Pieter Brueghel the Elder, The Misanthrope (1568). Tempura on canvas, 86 x 85 cm. Signed and dated: ‘BRVEGEL 1568’. Museo e Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte, Naples, catalogue number 585 (reproduced from Martin 1978, figure 37).

Include cited authors in the reference list.

Supply the source below the table or figure, if material is copyrighted.


  1. Citation Guidelines: Chicago Author-Date

In Text:

Within the body of your text, citations are indicated in parentheses with the author's surname, publication date, and page number (if needed, as when quoting direct words), e.g. (Smith 2012, 45).

Citations are placed within the text where they offer the least resistance to the flow of thought, frequently just before a mark of punctuation.

Single-author citations: If the author’s name appears in the text it is not necessary to repeat it, but the date should follow immediately: Malan (2014, 4) refers to this …

Single author with two or more works in the same year: (Gray 2009a; 2009b)

One publication with two+ authors: … contested by Smith and Jones (2013, 16). Also (Smith and Jones 2013, 16)

Multiple publications: … venture failed (Bergin 2009; Chance 2008, 14–17).

When citing multiple publications/authors do so alphabetically (Louw 2010a, 3; Ncube 2008, 77; Zeiss 1993, 4).

Multiple authors with the same initial surname and same year of publication—shorten titles: (Coe et al., “Media diversity,” 2001) and (Coe et al., “Social media,” 2001)

No page numbers are needed if citing a text on the internet, e.g. academic freedom (Smith 2014), unless page numbers are available

Avoid citing a secondary source: … greater good (Mullins as quoted in Khan 2014, 6), Mullins (as quoted in Khan 2014, 6) argues …

Blogs are only referenced in-text.


Legal Matter

Legal matter (legal cases, legislation, etc.) is referenced in footnotes according to OSCOLA style conventions (

Op. cit. and loc. cit. are, however, not used, in keeping with the Chicago Manual of Style.

Instead, the author (if applicable) is named, along with the work’s title and page number(s).

First references (in footnotes)


In South African jurisdiction, cases are cited as follows:

<names of the parties in italics><year of the law report in which case is published>(<volume>)<reporter><page on which the case begins>(<court>) at <page>

            Broad (Pty) Ltd v Thin 2008 (4) SA 456 (SCA).


In a subsequent citation of a source, briefly identify the source and provide a cross-citation in brackets to the footnote in which the full citation can be found:

Broad (n 21)


The title and number of a statute should not be italicised, except where the statute is used as a foreign statute in a different language, for example:

            Judicial Service Commission Act 9 of 1994.



Legal matter should be included in the reference list under separate headings, eg.:


Broad (Pty) Ltd v Thin 2008 (4) SA 456 (SCA).



Judicial Service Commission Act 9 of 1994.


References: (See examples below)

Use the heading: References.

Only list sources actually referred to in the text.



List authors alphabetically. Use surnames, first names (if known) and initials.

The entries are additionally sorted by the work’s date of publication (oldest to newest).

Do not use a dash to replace author names.

If no author or editor, order alphabetically by title (corresponding with text citation).

A single-author entry precedes a multi-author entry beginning with the same surname.

Successive entries by two+ authors, when the first author is the same, are alphabetised by co-authors’ surnames.



Use headline-style capitalisation in titles and subtitles of works and parts of works such as articles or chapters (i.e., Biology in the Modern World: Science for Life in South Africa). Capitalise significant words and proper nouns.

Use headline-style capitalisation for titles of journals and periodicals (i.e., Journal of Social Activism).

Titles of stand-alone publications are typed in italics when used in text: Evangelism and the Growth of Pentecostalism in Africa.


Compound Sources

Source within another source: Smit, R. 2012. “Where to Now?” In Climate Change in the Next Decade, edited by S.Y. Tovey and T. Rosti, 200–234. Pretoria: Van Schaik.

Treat pamphlets, reports, brochures and freestanding publications (such as exhibition catalogues) as books. Give sufficient information to identify the document.


Electronic references (NB: The text reference must correspond with the alphabetical reference list):

Author’s surname, name and initials (if available); title of article/publication. website address (URL)

Macdonald, Fiona. 2017. “The Extraordinary Life of the 1920s Lady Gaga.” BBC Culture, September 20. Accessed October 6, 2017.


Personal communications, letters, conversations, emails, interviews, recordings may be listed separately in the reference list.


Omit: Inc., Co. Publishing Co. etc. from the name of the publisher.


EXAMPLES (For full list of examples see

R: Reference list

T: Text citation



One Author

R: Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.

T: (Pollan 2006, 99–100).


Two or Three Authors

R: Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. 2007. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf.

T: (Ward and Burns 2007, 52).


Four or More Authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text from 2nd citation, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):

R: Barnes, L. A., A. M. Harcombe, P. B. Rall, M. Z. Motala, and W. Grové. 2010. Unisa Press: An Illustrated History. Pretoria: Unisa Press.

T: (Barnes et al. 2010).


Editor, Translator, or Compiler instead of Author

R: Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

T: (Lattimore 1951, 91–92).


Editor, Translator, or Compiler in Addition to Author

R: García Márquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape.

T: (García Márquez 1988, 242–55).


Chapter or Other Part of a Book

R: Kelly, John D. 2010. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

T: (Kelly 2010, 77).


Chapter of an Edited Volume Originally Published Elsewhere (as in primary sources)

R: Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).

T: (Cicero 1986, 35)


Preface, Foreword, Introduction, or Similar Part of a Book

R: Rieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

T: (Rieger 1982, xx–xxi)


Book Published Electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL and an access date. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

R: Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle edition.

T: (Austen 2007)

R: Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (accessed January 1, 2012).

 T: (Kurland and Lerner, chap. 10, doc. 19)


Journal Articles

Article in a Print Journal

In the text, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the reference list entry, list the page range for the whole article.

R: Weinstein, Joshua I. 2009. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104 (4): 439–58.

T: (Weinstein 2009, 440)


Article in an Online Journal

Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL and include an access date.

R: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115: 405–50.

T: (Kossinets and Watts 2009, 411)


Other Sources

Book Review

R: Kamp, David. 2006. “Deconstructing Dinner.” Review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan. New York Times, April 23, Sunday Book Review. (accessed January 1, 2012).

T: (Kamp 2006)


Thesis or Dissertation

R: Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD dissertation, University of Chicago.

T: (Choi 2008)


Archival material/manuscript collections

When citing archival material in the author-date style, it is unnecessary to use n.d. (no date) in place of the date. Dates of individual items should be mentioned in the text, when applicable:

R: Egmont Manuscripts. Phillipps Collection. University of Georgia Library.

Kallen, Horace. Papers. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York.

T: Oglethorpe wrote to the trustees on January 13, 1733 (Egmont Manuscripts), to say…

Alvin Johnson, in a memorandum prepared sometime in 1937 (Kallen Papers, file 36), observed that...

If only one item from a collection has been mentioned in the text, however, the entry may begin with the writer’s name (if known). In such a case, the use of n.d. may become appropriate:

R:        Dinkel, Joseph. n.d. Description of Louis Agassiz written at the request of Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Agassiz Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University.

T:         (Dinkel, n.d.)


Paper Presented at a Meeting or Conference

R: Adelman, Rachel. 2009. “‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24.

T: (Adelman 2009)


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