A Systematic Review of English as a Medium of Instruction Policy in the Arab World





Arab world (AW), English as a medium of instruction (EMI), Arabic as a medium of instruction (AMI), language of instruction, higher education


Language of instruction policy plays a major role in the success of education, impacting stakeholders from different backgrounds, such as instructors, students, parents, and government officials. This article presents an analysis of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) research conducted in Arab world (AW) countries since the year 2000. A keyword search of the Scopus database returned 101 articles, 52 of which were removed using identified selection criteria. This left 49 articles analysed in terms of authorship, funding information, research instruments, contexts, publication year and place, citations, and key findings. The results were as follows: Although AW researchers have examined EMI policy in greater detail during the last five years, several AW contexts remain unexplored. Author affiliations were linked to the locations of funding organisations. Neither K-12 nor graduate EMI provision has been investigated fully. While EMI is a successful top-down policy well-suited to AW demographics, it is viewed negatively by most students, possibly because programmes are not designed well and instructors are insufficiently prepared to teach EMI programmes effectively. Although EMI’s one-size-fits-all approach is common in many AW institutions, educational levels and academic disciplines impact the success of EMI policy. I argue that AW and international researchers must collaborate to gain a wider understanding of AW contexts, and that research must strive to include other stakeholders, such as employers and parents.


Metrics Loading ...


Abouzeid, R. 2021. “Aligning Perceptions with Reality: Lebanese EMI Instructor Perceptions of Students’ Writing Proficiency”. English for Specific Purposes 63: 45–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2021.03.001.

Abuqutaish, R. H. M., and N. Al-Zayed. 2020. “The English Language Level of Proficiency on Mathematical Problem Solving Skills”. Opción: Revista de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales 36 (27): 435–453. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=7667375.

Alasmari, M., F. Qasem, R. Ahmed, and M. Alrayes. 2022. “Bilingual Teachers’ Translanguaging Practices and Ideologies in Online Classrooms in Saudi Arabia”. Heliyon 8 (9): E10537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e10537.

Alfakhry, G. M., M. Dashash, and I. Jamous. 2020. “Native Arabic Language Use Acceptability and Adequacy in Health Professional Instruction: Students and Faculty’s Perspectives”. Health Professions Education 6 (4): 454–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hpe.2020.06.004.

Alfehaid, A. 2018. “Using English as a Medium of Instruction in a Saudi University: Experiences and Implications”. Asian EFL Journal 20 (12): 60–101.

Alhamami, M. 2015. “Teaching Science Subjects in Arabic: Arab University Scientists’ Perspectives”. Language Learning in Higher Education 5 (1): 105–123. https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2015-0006.

Alhamami, M. 2019. “Language of Instruction Policy in Science Programs: Science Students’ Voices”. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia 8 (1): 110–118. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v8i1.17086.

Alhamami, M. 2021. “English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) in Computing Undergraduate Programs”. Education and Information Technologies 26 (5): 6549–6562. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10637-6.

Alhamami, M. 2022. “English as the Medium of Instruction (EMI) in Undergraduate Engineering Programs”. IEEE Transactions on Education 65 (1): 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1109/TE.2021.3094210.

Alhamami, M., and A. Almelhi. 2021a. “English or Arabic in Healthcare Education: Perspectives of Healthcare Alumni, Students, and Instructors”. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare 14: 2537–2547. https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S330579.

Alhamami, M., and A. Almelhi. 2021b. “The Dilemma of English as a Medium of Instruction Policy in Science College Programs”. SiElE: Studies in English Language and Education 8 (3): 1045–1060. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v8i3.21218.

Alhasnawi, S. 2021. “Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices with Respect to Translanguaging in University Mathematics in Iraq”. Linguistics and Education 63: 100930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2021.100930.

Al-Kahtany, A., and M. Alhamami. 2022. “Linguistic Hegemony and English in Higher Education”. Sustainable Multilingualism 20 (1): 18–45. https://doi.org/10.2478/sm-2022-0002.

Al-Qahtani, Z., and A. W. Al Zumor. 2016. “Saudi Parents’ Attitudes Towards Using English as a Medium of Instruction in Private Primary Schools”. IJALEL: International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature 5 (1): 18–32. https://journals.aiac.org.au/index.php/IJALEL/article/view/1957.

Alrajhi, Z., A. Alhamdan, M. Alshareef, O. Almubaireek, M. S. Mohmoud, A. Omair, E. Masuadi, and B. Hamad. 2019. “Perspectives of Medical Students and Teaching Faculty on Teaching Medicine in Their Native Language”. EMHJ: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 25 (8): 562–566. https://doi.org/10.26719/emhj.18.073.

Alshamsi, A. S., and N. O. Alsheikh. 2020. “Sociocultural Integration of Bilingualism and Biliteracy of Emiratis: Exploratory Study in a Group of Fifth-Grade Students”. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature; The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies 26 (3): 66–80. https://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2020-2603-06.

Alshareef, M., O. Mobaireek, M. Mohamud, Z. Alrajhi, A. Alhamdan, and B. Hamad. 2018. “Decision Makers’ Perspectives on the Language of Instruction in Medicine in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study”. Health Professions Education 4 (4): 308–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hpe.2018.03.006.

Al-Shboul, O. K. 2022. “The Students’ Perceptions of Arabic and English as a Medium of Instruction in Jordan”. Theory and Practice in Language Studies 12 (7): 1441–1446. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.1207.26.

Alsuliman, T., L. Alasadi, A. Mouki, and B. Alsaid. 2019. “Language of Written Medical Educational Materials for Non-English Speaking Populations: An Evaluation of a Simplified Bi-lingual Approach”. BMC Medical Education 19 (1): 418. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1846-x.

Al Zumor, A. Q. 2019. “Challenges of Using EMI in Teaching and Learning of University Scientific Disciplines: Student Voice”. IJoLE: International Journal of Language Education 3 (1): 74–90. https://ojs.unm.ac.id/ijole/article/view/7510/pdf.

Azzam, Z. 2019. “Dubai’s Private K-12 Education Sector: In Search of Bilingual Education”. Journal of Research in International Education 18 (3): 227–256. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475240919892424.

Bahous, R., N. N. Bacha, and M. Nabhani. 2011. “Multilingual Educational Trends and Practices in Lebanon: A Case Study”. International Review of Education 57 (5–6): 737–749. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-011-9250-8.

Bamgbose, A. 2011. “African Languages Today: The Challenge of and Prospects for Empowerment under Globalization”. In Selected Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, edited by E. G. Bokamba, R. K. Shosted and B. T. Ayalew, 1–14. Somerville: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. https://www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/40/paper2561.pdf.

Barnawi, O. Z. 2022. “Islam, Language and Intra-Asian Student Mobility: A Case Study of Three Indonesian Male Students in Saudi Arabia”. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 32 (2): 214–235. https://doi.org/10.1075/japc.00074.bar.

Belhiah, H., and M. Elhami. 2015. “English as a Medium of Instruction in the Gulf: When Students and Teachers Speak”. Language Policy 14 (1): 3–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-014-9336-9.

Ben Hammou, S., and A. Kesbi. 2023a. “The Teaching of Science Subjects through Foreign Languages in Moroccan Secondary Schools: Teachers’ Perceptions and Experiences”. RELC Journal 54 (3): 757–772. https://doi.org/10.1177/00336882211035832.

Ben Hammou, S., and A. Kesbi. 2023b. “English-Medium Instruction (EMI) in Moroccan Higher Education: Students’ Attitudes”. Journal for Multicultural Education 17 (1): 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1108/JME-01-2022-0011.

Britannica. 2022. “Arab”. Encyclopedia Britannica, last updated June 13, 2024. Accessed March 6, 2024. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Arab.

Coelho, D., N. Khalil, and D. D. Shankar. 2024. “Teachers’ Perceptions and ‘Invisible’ Uses of Plurilingual Pedagogy in UAE K-12 Schools”. International Journal of Multilingualism 21 (2): 670–688. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2022.2099400.

Creswell, J. W., and V. L. P. Clark. 2017. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Dang, T. K. A., G. Bonar, and J. Yao. 2023. “Professional Learning for Educators Teaching in English-Medium-Instruction in Higher Education: A Systematic Review”. Teaching in Higher Education: Critical Perspectives 28 (4): 840–858. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2020.1863350.

Demmans Epp, C., G. Park, and C. Plumb. 2015. “Developing an Adaptive Tool to Select, Plan, and Scaffold Oral Assessment Tasks for Undergraduate Courses”. Educational Technology Research and Development 63 (3): 475–498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-015-9375-8.

Deygers, B., and M. Vanbuel. 2022. “Advocating an Empirically-Founded University Admission Policy”. Language Policy 21 (4): 575–596. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-022-09615-6.

El-Dakhs, D. A. S., M. Salem, and J. N. Al-Haqbani. 2020. “The Influence of L1 Congruency, L2 Exposure, and Word Class on Collocation Learning: The Case of Arab Learners of English”. Asian EFL Journal 27 (21): 62–88.

Eleftheriou, M. 2019. “Multilingual, Middle-Eastern Students’ Varied Responses to Directive and Non-Directive Strategies in Peer Tutoring”. TESOL International Journal 14 (1): 62–78. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1244101.pdf.

Ellili-Cherif, M. 2014. “Integrated Language and Content Instruction in Qatar Independent Schools: Teachers’ Perspectives”. Teacher Development: An International Journal of Teachers’ Professional Development 18 (2): 211–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2014.900819.

Gaffas, Z. M. 2019. “Students’ Perceptions of the Impact of EGP and ESP Courses on Their English Language Development: Voices from Saudi Arabia”. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 42: 100797. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2019.100797.

Galloway, N., and H. Rose. 2021. “English Medium Instruction and the English Language Practitioner”. ELT Journal 75 (1): 33–41. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccaa063.

Graham, K. M., Z. R. Eslami, and S. Hillman. 2021. “From English as the Medium to English as a Medium: Perspectives of EMI Students in Qatar”. System 99: 102508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102508.

Guz, A. N., and J. J. Rushchitsky. 2009. “Scopus: A System for the Evaluation of Scientific Journals”. International Applied Mechanics 45 (4): 351–362. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10778-009-0189-4.

Hallinger, P., and J. Kovačević. 2019. “A Bibliometric Review of Research on Educational Administration: Science Mapping the Literature, 1960 to 2018”. Review of Educational Research 89 (3): 335–369. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654319830380.

Hama, F. M., O. H. Ahmed, and A. M. Ahmed. 2018. “The Impact of English Language as a Medium of Instruction Amongst Non-English Major Students in the College of Science and Technology in the University of Human Development”. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 13 (10): 3624–3632. https://doi.org/10.3923/jeasci.2018.3624.3632.

Hasanen, M. M., A. A. Al-Kandari, and H. Al-Sharoufi. 2014. “The Role of English Language and International Media as Agents of Cultural Globalisation and Their Impact on Identity Formation in Kuwait”. Globalisation, Societies and Education 12 (4): 542–563. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2013.861972.

Hijji, B. M. 2017. “Flaws of Multiple Choice Questions in Teacher-Constructed Nursing Examinations: A Pilot Descriptive Study”. Journal of Nursing Education 56 (8): 490–496. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20170712-08.

Hopkyns, S., W. Zoghbor, and P. J. Hassall. 2021. “The Use of English and Linguistic Hybridity among Emirati Millennials”. In “World Englishes in the Middle East and North Africa”, edited by T. Elyas and A. Mahboob, special issue, World Englishes 40 (2): 176–190. https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12506.

Ismail, A. 2014. “Philosophy, Language Policy and the Knowledge Society”. In Education for a Knowledge Society in Arabian Gulf Countries, edited by A. Wiseman, N. H. Alromi and S. Alshumrani, 37–57. International Perspectives on Education and Society, Vol. 24. Leeds: Emerald Group Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1479-367920140000024005.

Khan, I. A. 2021. “Teaching of Pharmacy in Saudi Arabia: Relevance of English and Digital Pedagogy”. Bahrain Medical Bulletin 43 (3): 618–620. https://www.bahrainmedicalbulletin.com/SEPT_2021/BMB-21-80.pdf.

Kirkpatrick, A. 2011. “English as a Medium of Instruction in Asian Education (from Primary to Tertiary): Implications for Local Languages and Local Scholarship”. Applied Linguistics Review 2: 99–120. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110239331.99.

Liu, Y., B. H. Nam, and Y. Yang. 2023. “Revisiting Symbolic Power and Elite Language Education in China: A Critical Narrative Ethnography of the English Education Major at a Top Language University in Shanghai”. Educational Review. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2023.2184774.

Macaro, E. 2018. English Medium Instruction: Language and Content in Policy and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Macaro, E., and I. Aizawa. 2022. “Who Owns English Medium Instruction?” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2022.2136187.

Macaro, E., S. Curle, J. Pun, J. An, and J. Dearden. 2018. “A Systematic Review of English Medium Instruction in Higher Education”. Language Teaching 51 (1): 36–76. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444817000350.

Macaulay, T. B. M. 1935. Speeches by Lord Macaulay with His Minute on Indian Education. Oxford: Oxford University Press, H. Milford.

Macedo, D., B. Dendrinos, and P. Gounari. 2015. Hegemony of English. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315634159.

Manakul, W. 2007. “English in Engineering Education for Japanese Graduate Students”. Australasian Journal of Engineering Education 13 (2): 53–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/22054952.2007.11464006.

Masrai, A., D. A. S. El-Dakhs, and N. Yahya. 2022. “What Predicts Academic Achievement in EMI Courses? Focus on Vocabulary Knowledge and Self-Perceptions of L2 Skills”. SAGE Open 12 (2). https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440221101044.

Masrai, A., D. A. S. El-Dakhs, and H. Al Khawar. 2022. “General and Specialist Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Academic Success in EMI University Programs”. Language Learning in Higher Education 12 (1): 273–289. https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2022-2038.

Masri, T. 2020. “English Medium Instruction and Human Linguistic Rights: Academic, Psychological and Cultural Suffering”. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 28 (3): 514–543. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718115-28030003.

Mohsen, M. A. 2021. “A Bibliometric Study of the Applied Linguistics Research Output of Saudi Institutions in the Web of Science for the Decade 2011–2020”. The Electronic Library 39 (6): 865–884. https://doi.org/10.1108/EL-06-2021-0121.

Mustafawi, E., and K. Shaaban. 2019. “Language Policies in Education in Qatar Between 2003 and 2012: From Local to Global Then Back to Local”. Language Policy 18 (2): 209–242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-018-9483-5.

Mustafawi, E., K. Shaaban, T. Khwaileh, and K. Ata. 2022. “Perceptions and Attitudes of Qatar University Students Regarding the Utility of Arabic and English in Communication and Education in Qatar”. Language Policy 21 (1): 75–119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-021-09590-4.

Oraif, I., and M. Alrashed. 2022. “Using English Medium Instruction to Teach a General Course in a College of Business and Management”. Frontiers in Psychology 13: 984869. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.984869.

Orduna-Nocito, E., and D. Sánchez-García. 2022. “Aligning Higher Education Language Policies with Lecturers’ Views on EMI Practices: A Comparative Study of Ten European Universities”. System 104: 102692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2021.102692.

Osmani, M. W., N. Hindi, R. Al-Esmail, and V. Weerakkody. 2017. “Examining Graduate Skills in Accounting and Finance: The Perception of Middle Eastern Students”. Industry and Higher Education 31 (5): 318–327. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950422217721759.

Palfreyman, D. M., and A. Al-Bataineh. 2018. “‘This is My Life Style, Arabic and English’: Students’ Attitudes to (Trans)languaging in a Bilingual University Context”. In “Languages for Life—Educational, Professional and Social Contexts: Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference of the Association for Language Awareness, WU Vienna, July 2016”, edited by T. Rankin and M. Stegu, special issue, Language Awareness 27 (1–2): 79–95. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2018.1431244.

Phillipson, R. 2011. “English: From British Empire to Corporate Empire”. In “Language Beyond the Nation: A Comparative Approach to Policies and Discourses”, edited by J. Del Valle, special issue, Sociolinguistic Studies 5 (3): 441–464. https://doi.org/10.1558/sols.v5i3.441.

Phillipson, R. 2018. “Linguistic Imperialism”. In The Encyclopaedia of Applied Linguistics, edited by C.A. Chapelle. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0718.pub2.

Poon, A. Y. K. 2013. “Will the New Fine-Tuning Medium-of-Instruction Policy Alleviate the Threats of Dominance of English-Medium Instruction in Hong Kong?” Current Issues in Language Planning 14 (1): 34–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2013.791223.

Rodis, O. M., S. Matsumura, N. Kariya, M. Nishimura, and T. Yoshida. 2013. “Undergraduate Dental English Education in Japanese Dental Schools”. Journal of Dental Education 77 (5): 656–663. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.0022-0337.2013.77.5.tb05516.x.

Sah, P. K., and G. Li. 2018. “English Medium Instruction (EMI) as Linguistic Capital in Nepal: Promises and Realities”. International Multilingual Research Journal 12 (2): 109–123. https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2017.1401448.

Schoepp, K. 2018. “Predictive Validity of the IELTS in an English as a Medium of Instruction Environment”. Higher Education Quarterly 72 (4): 271–285. https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12163.

Scopus. 2023. “Scopus Now Includes 90 Million + Content Records”. Scopus (blog), February 15, 2023. Accessed June 14, 2024. https://blog.scopus.com/posts/scopus-now-includes-90-million-content-records.

Siddiquah, A., K. U. Din, S. Moghal, M. A. Saeed, and F. Altaf. 2021. “English as Medium of Instruction (MOI): Voices Addressing Proficiency Issues in Pakistani Tertiary Education”. Asian EFL Journal 28 (2.3): 156–180.

Sinno, S., and S. El Takach. 2020. “The Efficacy and Relevancy of the Language Courses in the Preparation of Elementary Science and Mathematics Prospective Teachers”. IJRES: International Journal of Research in Education and Science 6 (1): 179–201. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijres.v6i1.802.

Spolsky, B. 2021. Rethinking Language Policy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781474485487.

Suliman, W. A., and A. Tadros. 2011. “Nursing Students Coping with English as a Foreign Language Medium of Instruction”. Nurse Education Today 31 (4): 402–407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2010.07.014.

Tai, K. W. H. 2022. “Translanguaging as Inclusive Pedagogical Practices in English-Medium Instruction Science and Mathematics Classrooms for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students”. Research in Science Education 52: 975–1012. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-021-10018-6.

Tayem, Y. I., A. Alshammari, N. Albalawi, and M. Shareef. 2020. “Language Barriers to Studying Medicine in English: Perceptions of Final-Year Medical Students at the Arabian Gulf University”. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 26 (2): 233–238. https://doi.org/10.26719/2020.26.2.233.

Thompson, G., N. Takezawa, and H. Rose. 2022. “Investigating Self-Beliefs and Success for English Medium Instruction Learners Studying Finance”. Journal of Education for Business 97 (4): 220–227. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2021.1924108.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). 2021. “Language of Instruction”. Updated July 29, 2022. Accessed December 10, 2023. https://policytoolbox.iiep.unesco.org/policy-option/language-of-instruction/.

Vélez, G. S., G. R. Giner, and I. M. Clemente. 2020. “A Systematic Review of English as a Medium of Instruction in Higher Education Institutions: The Case of a Business School”. In Internationalising Learning in Higher Education, edited by M. Carrió-Pastor, 35–61. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21587-3_3.

Vitta, J. P., and A. H. Al-Hoorie. 2017. “Scopus-and SSCI-Indexed L2 Journals: A List for the Asia TEFL Community”. Journal of Asia TEFL 14 (4): 784–792. http://dx.doi.org/10.18823/asiatefl.2017.

Wanphet, P., and N. Tantawy. 2018. “Effectiveness of the Policy of English as a Medium of Instruction: Perspectives and Outcomes from the Instructors and Students of University Science Courses at a University in the UAE”. Educational Research for Policy and Practice 17 (2): 145–172. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10671-017-9223-1.

Widodo, H. P., F. Fang, and T. Elyas. 2020. “The Construction of Language Teacher Professional Identity in the Global Englishes Territory: ‘We Are Legitimate Language Teachers’”. Asian Englishes 22 (3): 309–316. https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2020.1732683.

Wilkinson, R. 2017. “Trends and Issues in English-Medium Instruction in Europe”. In Sharing Perspectives on English-Medium Instruction, edited by K. Akerley, M. Guarda, and F. Helm, 35–76. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Williams, D. G. 2015. “A Systematic Review of English Medium Instruction (EMI) and Implications for the South Korean Higher Education Context”. ELT-WorldOnline.com, Special Issue on CLIL, 1–23. https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/blog.nus.edu.sg/dist/7/112/files/2015/04/EMI-in-South-Korea_editforpdf-1gmsyy5.pdf.

Williams, R. 1977. Marxism and Literature. New York: Oxford University Press.

Yousif, M. A., A. S. Eldalo, M. A. Abd Allah, M. A. Al-Sawat, H. M. Al-Wahaibi, A. A. S. Al-Osaimi, and S. H. Al-Gethami. 2014. “Pharmacy Education Instruction: Preference and Practices, Saudi Students’ Perception”. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 22 (4): 309–314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2013.06.005.

Yushau, B. 2009. “Mathematics and Language: Issues among Bilingual Arabs in English Medium Universities”. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 40 (7): 915–926. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207390903223846.

Yushau, B., and M. Hafidz Omar. 2015. “Mathematics Performance and Its Relation to English Language Proficiency Level of Bilingual Arab University Students”. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 8 (13): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i13/73226.




How to Cite

Alhamami, Munassir. 2024. “A Systematic Review of English As a Medium of Instruction Policy in the Arab World”. Education As Change 28 (June):27 pages. https://doi.org/10.25159/1947-9417/15506.



Received 2023-12-02
Accepted 2024-03-21
Published 2024-06-24